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Toxicology

Neuroprotection afforded by MK-801 against L-2-chloropropionic acid-induced cerebellar granule cell necrosis in the rat.


PMID 9347923

Abstract

Administration of a single oral dose of 750 mg/kg L-2-chloropropionic acid (L-CPA) to rats produces marked necrosis to the granule cell layer of the cerebellum by 48 h after dosing. Associated with the neuropathology the rats show locomotor impairment and a loss of body weight and a significant increase in cerebellar water and sodium content, indicating an oedematous reaction. Cerebellar aspartate and glutamate concentrations were reduced, while glycine and glutamine concentrations were increased after this treatment. Administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channel antagonist (5R,10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,1 0-imine (MK-801), 30 min prior to L-CPA at a dose of 0.5, 1 or 5 mg/kg i.p. prevented the necrosis to the granule cell layer of the cerebellum and the signs of motor incoordination. Similarly there was no loss in cerebellar aspartate or glutamate concentration or increase in water or sodium content. Prior treatment with MK-801 at 0.1 mg/kg did not afford protection against the neurotoxicity. Post-treatment with 1 mg/kg MK-801 up to 1 h after administering L-CPA afforded complete neuroprotection, however if delayed until 2 or 6 h it gave only partial protection, and after 12 h it gave no protection. Administration of MK-801 alone at 5 mg/kg i.p., did not alter water content, sodium concentration, aspartate or glutamate concentrations in the cerebellum. In conclusion, we have shown that MK-801 given prior to and 1 h after L-CPA can afford complete neuroprotection, suggesting that a sub-population of NMDA receptors located on granule cells in cerebellum play a key role in mediating the selective toxicity of this chemical to the rat cerebellum.

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