Journal of toxicology and environmental health

Effect of pretreatment with dichloroacetate or trichloroacetate on the metabolism of bromodichloroacetate.

PMID 9354181


Haloacetates are a common class of water chlorination by-products. Depending on the amount of bromide in the source water, varying amounts of chlorinated, brominated, and mixed bromochloro haloacetates are produced. When administered to rodents, haloacetates have been shown to increase formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels in the liver. These responses appear to be modified by prior treatment. To examine potential mechanisms that account for these modifications in oxidative stress, the ability of trichloroacetate (TCA) or dichloroacetate (DCA) pretreatment to alter the metabolism of bromodichloroacetate (BDCA) and the disposition of its metabolites was examined in male B6C3F1 mice. Two-week pretreatment with 1 g/L DCA and TCA in the drinking water of mice alters the initial hepatic metabolism of BDCA and the further metabolism of its metabolite DCA. DCA pretreatment inhibits cytosolic metabolism of both 1 mM DCA or BDCA up to 70%. In contrast, DCA pretreatment stimulates hepatic microsomal BDCA metabolism 1.3-fold but has little effect on microsomal metabolism of DCA. Increased microsomal metabolism of BDCA appears to be attributable to the induction of a metabolic pathway that produces CO2 and bromodichloromethane (BDCM) as metabolites. TCA pretreatment inhibits BDCA metabolism up to 70% in the cytosol and 30% in microsomes but has little effect on DCA metabolism. These results indicate that the hepatic metabolism of the haloacetate becomes quite complex at the high doses that have been employed in cancer bioassays. BDCA serves as a good example, because it is metabolized to at least two carcinogenic metabolites that have different modes of action, BDCM and DCA. As doses approach those that induce cancer in mice, the proportion of and amounts of these metabolites as a fraction of the dose administered will change substantially. This article demonstrates that those interactions will occur from mixed treatment with haloacetates as well.