Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology

Contribution of cytosolic ionic and energetic milieu change to ischemia- and reperfusion-induced injury in guinea pig heart: fluorometry and nuclear magnetic resonance studies.

PMID 9456289


The contribution of cytosolic ion and energy milieu changes to ischemia/reperfusion injury was investigated in isolated guinea-pig hearts and mitochondria, with fluorometry and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The fura-2 Ca2+ signal during ischemia in the guinea-pig Langendorff heart changed triphasically (phases I, II, and III) and rapidly returned to the control level after the reperfusion. These triphasic changes during ischemia were affected by various agents that affect the cytosolic ion milieu: the combination of asebotoxin-III and dihydroouabain (which increase intracellular Na+) caused an increase in Ca2+ levels in the final stage (phase III) with a manifestation of contracture after the reperfusion of the heart. Inhibitors of the H+-Na+ exchange such as 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride (EIPA) produced a significant restorative effect on the contractility of the reperfused heart with increased proton and decreased Na+ and Ca2+ in the cytosol. The mitochondrial matrix Ca2+ ([Ca2+]m) preloaded with abnormally high Ca2+ levels was markedly increased by perfusion with either a physiologic concentration of Ca2+ or an acidified perfusate. These [Ca2+]m increases were reduced by the H+-Na+ and H+-K+ exchange inhibitor (EIPA; omeprazole), respectively. These findings will help to explain the Ca paradox at the mitochondria level (i.e., mitochondria for Ca2+ pumping play an essential role in the cellular homeostasis of Ca2+ for the maintenance of cell functions of the heart, acting like a Ca2+ scavenger in the cytosol). Factors that induce Ca2+ overload on mitochondria via sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx and any exchange mechanisms with Na+, K+, Ca2+, and H+ will lead to a loss of contractility, associated with the extremely reduced level of free energy change predicted from the reduced ATP x PCr/Pi ratio by 31P NMR.