Identification of the binding site for a low-molecular-weight inhibitor of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 by site-directed mutagenesis.

PMID 9477948


A novel low-molecular-weight inhibitor, AR-H029953XX, was developed from a known fibrinolytic compound, flufenamic acid, which prevented complex formation of human plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) by inhibition of PAI-1. To explore the binding site for AR-H029953XX, mutants of human PAI-1 were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis and were then expressed in CHO cells, purified, activated, and characterized. (1) PAI-1 with mutations in the reactive center loop: L1-PAI-1 (P10, Ser337Glu) had stability and activity similar to those of wild-type PAI-1 (wt-PAI-1), and L2-PAI-1 (P12, Ala335Glu) was highly stable but was a substrate for tPA. (2) PAI-1 with mutations near the binding epitope for the strongly inhibiting monoclonal antibody CLB-2C8: C1-PAI-1 (Phe114Glu), C2-PAI-1 (Val121Phe), C3-PAI-1 (Arg76Glu/Arg115Glu/Arg118Glu), and C4-PAI-1 (Arg115Glu) were all comparable in activity and stability to wt-PAI-1. AR-H029953XX (Ki = 25 microM) prevented complex formation between tPA and active wt-PAI-1 as well as that with mutants L1-, L2-, C1-, C2-, and C4-PAI-1. AR-H029953XX also inhibited binding of these PAI-1 variants to the antibody CLB-2C8, as measured by surface plasmon resonance. In contrast, AR-H029953XX had almost no inhibitory effect on the complex formation of tPA with C3-PAI-1. Moreover, AR-H029953XX had no effect on the binding rate of CLB-2C8 to C3-PAI-1, or on the binding to latent PAI-1 or to cleaved L2-PAI-1. The binding site of AR-H029953XX thus appears to be located in the neighborhood of the postulated epitope for CLB-2C8, near residues Arg76 and/or Arg118. This specific domain of the PAI-1 molecule might thus also be important for the mechanism of inhibitory activity toward tPA. Moreover, the structure of this region in active PAI-1 has to be different from the corresponding regions in latent and cleaved PAI-1.

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Chlordimeform, PESTANAL®, analytical standard