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Molecular pharmacology

Specific activation of the nuclear receptors PPARgamma and RORA by the antidiabetic thiazolidinedione BRL 49653 and the antiarthritic thiazolidinedione derivative CGP 52608.


PMID 9614218

Abstract

The thiazolidinedione BRL 49653 and the thiazolidinedione derivative CGP 52608 are lead compounds of two pharmacologically different classes of compounds. BRL 49653 is a high affinity ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and a prototype of novel antidiabetic agents, whereas CGP 52608 activates retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) and exhibits potent antiarthritic activity. Both receptors belong to the superfamily of nuclear receptors and are structurally related transcription factors. We tested BRL 49653 and CGP 52608 for receptor specificity on PPARgamma, RORA, and retinoic acid receptor alpha, a closely related receptor to RORA, and compared their pharmacological properties in in vitro and in vivo models in which these compounds have shown typical effects. BRL 49653 specifically induced PPARgamma-mediated gene activation, whereas CGP 52608 specifically activated RORA in transiently transfected cells. Both compounds were active in nanomolar concentrations. Leptin production in differentiated adipocytes was inhibited by nanomolar concentrations of BRL 49653 but not by CGP 52608. BRL 49653 antagonized weight loss, elevated blood glucose levels, and elevated plasma triglyceride levels in an in vivo model of glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in rats, whereas CGP 52608 exhibited steroid-like effects on triglyceride levels and body weight in this model. In contrast, potent antiarthritic activity in rat adjuvant arthritis was shown for CGP 52608, whereas BRL 49653 was nearly inactive. Our results support the concept that transcriptional control mechanisms via the nuclear receptors PPARgamma and RORA are responsible at least in part for the different pharmacological properties of BRL 49653 and CGP 52608. Both compounds are prototypes of interesting novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis.

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C5749
CGP 52608, ≥98%, solid
C8H12N4OS2