Molecular cloning and expression analysis of five novel genes in chromosome 1p36.

PMID 9653645


The human chromosome 1p36 region displays frequent nonrandom chromosomal deletions and translocations in a number of human malignancies; these are thought to inactivate tumor suppressor genes. To identify these putative tumor suppressors we employed exon trapping, cDNA selection, and zoo blot analysis to clone five new genes located in 1p36. Two of these represent novel genes and were designated C1orf1 and xylan 1,4-beta-xylosidase 1 (XBX1). Two further genes represented new members of known gene families: PTPRZ2 was a tyrosine phosphatase and FRAP2 represented a FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein. The fifth gene identified, ENO1L1, was significantly homologous to c-myc promoter binding protein, MBP-1, and to enolase 1 (ENO1). It colocalized with alpha enolase (ENO1) on a single P1 clone. ENO1L1 differed from both ENO1 and MBP-1 in the organization of its 5' untranslated sequences. Second, MBP-1 contained two single-base insertions not present in either ENO1 or ENO1L1 sequences, which led to a shift in the MBP-1 reading frame. Expression analysis revealed two brain-specific transcripts of 7.9 and 6.5 kb for PTPRZ2. In contrast, C1orf1, FRAP2, ENO1L1, and XBX1 appeared to be expressed ubiquitously in the tissues tested, with transcript sizes of 4.5, 8.7, 1.75, and 4.5 kb, respectively. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we mapped the five novel genes relative to chromosome 1p36 breakpoints present in three established tumor cell lines and one nontumor cell line. The karyotypic abnormalities in these cell lines were exploited as chromosomal landmarks; we could thus show that the telomere to centromere gene order was PTPRZ2-(MBP-1/ENO1/ENO1L1)-(C1orf1/XBX1)-+ ++FRAP2. The localization of these genes to a chromosomal region that is prone to deletions in human cancers makes them potential candidate tumor suppressors.