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Mutation research

Chemopreventive properties of chlorophylls towards aflatoxin B1: a review of the antimutagenicity and anticarcinogenicity data in rainbow trout.


PMID 9672663

Abstract

The anticarcinogenic activity of chlorophyllin (CHL), a water-soluble derivative of chlorophyll, was first reported in rainbow trout. This review describes certain experiments which set the stage for long-term tumor bioassays, in trout and other species, using CHL and various food-borne carcinogens. Initial work with trout and rat liver enzymes in the Salmonella assay showed that CHL was a potent antimutagen towards heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aflatoxins and other classes of mutagen. Antimutagenic activity was further demonstrated using the corresponding direct-acting mutagens in the absence of an exogenous metabolizing system. Mutagen-inhibitor interaction (molecular complex formation) was identified in spectrophotometry studies, suggesting that CHL acts as an 'interceptor molecule'. In vivo, CHL reduced hepatic AFB1-DNA adducts and hepatocarcinogenesis when the inhibitor and carcinogen were co-administered in the diet. Finally, co-injection of inhibitor and AFB1 into trout embryos established that CHL was more effective than chlorophyll a in reducing AFB1-DNA adducts 2 weeks after injection, and liver tumors after 1 year.