American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine

Inhibitory effect of pulmonary surfactant proteins A and D on allergen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and histamine release in children with asthma.

PMID 9700129


The role of pulmonary surfactant proteins in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and the impact on asthma has not been elucidated. This study was designed to examine the effect of surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and D (SP-D) on phytohemagglutinin- (PHA) and mite allergen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p)-induced histamine release and the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in children with asthma in stable condition (n = 21), asthmatic children during acute attacks (n = 9), and age-matched control subjects (n = 7). The results show that SP-A and SP-D were able to reduce the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into PBMC in a dose-dependent manner. In addition to the intact, native SP-A and SP-D proteins, a recombinant peptide composed of the neck and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of SP-D [SP-D(N/CRD)] was also found to have the same suppressive effect on lymphocyte proliferation. This effect was abolished by the presence of 100 mM mannose (for SP-A) or maltose (for SP-D) in the culture medium, which suggested that the CRD regions of SP-A and SP-D may interact with the carbohydrate structures on the surface molecules of lymphocytes. The inhibitory effects of surfactant proteins on PHA- and Der p-stimulated lymphocyte responses were observed in stable asthmatic children and age-matched control subjects, while only a mild suppression (< 25%) was seen in activated lymphocytes derived from asthmatic children with acute attacks. SP-A and SP-D were also found to inhibit allergen-induced histamine release, in a dose-dependent manner, in the diluted whole blood of asthmatic children. We conclude that both SP-A and SP-D can inhibit histamine release in the early phase of allergen provocation and suppress lymphocyte proliferation in the late phase of bronchial inflammation, the two essential steps in the development of asthmatic symptoms. It appears that SP-A and SP-D may be protective against the pathogenesis of asthma.

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