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Genes & development

The essential Gcd10p-Gcd14p nuclear complex is required for 1-methyladenosine modification and maturation of initiator methionyl-tRNA.


PMID 9851972

Abstract

Gcd10p and Gcd14p are essential proteins required for the initiation of protein synthesis and translational repression of GCN4 mRNA. The phenotypes of gcd10 mutants were suppressed by high-copy-number IMT genes, encoding initiator methionyl tRNA (tRNAiMet), or LHP1, encoding the yeast homolog of the human La autoantigen. The gcd10-504 mutation led to a reduction in steady-state levels of mature tRNAiMet, attributable to increased turnover rather than decreased synthesis of pre-tRNAiMet. Remarkably, the lethality of a GCD10 deletion was suppressed by high-copy-number IMT4, indicating that its role in expression of mature tRNAiMet is the essential function of Gcd10p. A gcd14-2 mutant also showed reduced amounts of mature tRNAiMet, but in addition, displayed a defect in pre-tRNAiMet processing. Gcd10p and Gcd14p were found to be subunits of a protein complex with prominent nuclear localization, suggesting a direct role in tRNAiMet maturation. The chromatographic behavior of elongator and initiator tRNAMet on a RPC-5 column indicated that both species are altered structurally in gcd10Delta cells, and analysis of base modifications revealed that 1-methyladenosine (m1A) is undetectable in gcd10Delta tRNA. Interestingly, gcd10 and gcd14 mutations had no effect on processing or accumulation of elongator tRNAMet, which also contains m1A at position 58, suggesting a unique requirement for this base modification in initiator maturation.