Chemical research in toxicology

N2-amination of guanine to 2-hydrazinohypoxanthine, a novel in vivo nucleic acid modification produced by the hepatocarcinogen 2-nitropropane.

PMID 9860487


2-Nitropropane, an industrial chemical and a hepatocarcinogen in rats, induces aryl sulfotransferase-mediated liver DNA and RNA base modifications [Sodum, R. S., Sohn, O. S., Nie, G., and Fiala, E. S. (1994) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 7, 344-351]. Two of these modifications were previously identified as 8-aminoguanine and 8-oxoguanine. We now report that the base moiety of the so far unidentified third nucleic acid modification, namely RX1 in RNA and DX1 in DNA, is 2-hydrazinohypoxanthine (N2-aminoguanine). 2-Hydrazinoinosine and 2-hydrazinodeoxyinosine, synthesized by adapting published procedures, cochromatographed with RX1 and DX1 of liver RNA and DNA, respectively, from 2-nitropropane-treated rats. 2-Hydrazinoinosine and 2-hydrazinodeoxyinosine are unstable in solution like the in vivo products RX1 and DX1. At neutral pH, hypoxanthine nucleoside is the major product of decomposition, while at pH 10 or above, xanthine nucleoside is also formed. RX1 and DX1 could be generated in the anaerobic reactions of hydroxylamine-O-sulfonic acid, an intermediate in the proposed activation pathway of 2-nitropropane, with guanine nucleosides. These results provide further evidence for the activation of 2-nitropropane and other carcinogenic secondary nitroalkanes to a reactive species capable of aminating nucleic acids and proteins.

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2-Bromohypoxanthine, 96%