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E8751 Sigma-Aldrich

Ethidium bromide

~95% (HPLC)

Synonym: 3,8-Diamino-5-ethyl-6-phenylphenanthridinium bromide, EtBr, Homidium bromide

  • CAS Number 1239-45-8

  • Empirical Formula (Hill Notation) C21H20BrN3

  • Molecular Weight 394.31

  •  Beilstein/REAXYS Number 3642536

  •  EC Number 214-984-6

  •  MDL number MFCD00011724

  •  PubChem Substance ID 24894683

  •  NACRES NB.22

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Properties

Related Categories Agarose Blends for Electrophoresis, Apoptosis Detection, Apoptosis and Cell Cycle, Biochemicals and Reagents, Cell Biology,
Quality Level   200
assay   ~95% (HPLC)
mp   260-262 °C (dec.) (lit.)
SMILES string   [Br-].CC[n+]1c(-c2ccccc2)c3cc(N)ccc3c4ccc(N)cc14
InChI   1S/C21H19N3.BrH/c1-2-24-20-13-16(23)9-11-18(20)17-10-8-15(22)12-19(17)21(24)14-6-4-3-5-7-14;/h3-13,23H,2,22H2,1H3;1H
InChI key   ZMMJGEGLRURXTF-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Description

Application

Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is the most commonly used nucleic acid stain for PAGE or agarose gel electrophoresis. The fluorescence of EtBr increases 21-fold upon binding to double-stranded RNA and 25-fold on binding double-stranded DNA so that destaining the background is not necessary with a low stain concentration (10 μg/ml). Ethidium bromide has been used in a number of fluorimetric assays for nucleic acids. It has been shown to bind to single-stranded DNA (although not as strongly) and triple-stranded DNA. Because of its ability to bind to DNA, EtBr is an inhibitor of DNA polymerase.

Frameshift mutagen which intercalates double-stranded DNA and RNA.

Packaging

1, 5, 10, 25 g in glass bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Ethidium bromide intercalates double-stranded DNA and RNA and acts as a frameshift mutagen. It can also be used in conjunction with acridine orange to differentiate between viable, apoptotic and necrotic cells.

Reconstitution

For staining a gel after electrophoresis, dilute a sample of the stock solution to 0.5 μg/ml with water and incubate the gel for 15-30 min. Destaining is usually not needed but can be carried out in water for 15 min if decreased background is necessary. The DNA bands can then be detected on a UV light box (254 nm wavelength). Ethidium bromide can also be incorporated into the gel and running buffer at 0.5 μg/ml and visualized immediately after electrophoresis.

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard statements 
RIDADR 
UN 2811PIH 6.1 / PGI
WGK Germany 
WGK 3
RTECS 
SF7950000

Documents

Certificate of Analysis (COA)

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Certificate of Origin (COO)

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Frequently Asked Questions

Which document(s) contains shelf-life or expiration date information for a given product?
If available for a given product, the recommended re-test date or the expiration date can be found on the Certificate of Analysis.
How do I get lot-specific information or a Certificate of Analysis?
The lot specific COA document can be found by entering the lot number above under the "Documents" section.
How do I find price and availability?
There are several ways to find pricing and availability for our products. Once you log onto our website, you will find the price and availability displayed on the product detail page. You can contact any of our Customer Sales and Service offices to receive a quote. USA customers: 1-800-325-3010 or view local office numbers.
What is the best working concentration of Product E8751, Ethidium bromide?
For staining a gel after electrophoresis, dilute a sample of the stock solution to 0.5 μg/mL with water and incubate the gel for 15-30 min.Ethidium bromide can also be incorporated into the gel and running buffer at 0.5 μg/mL, and visualized immediately after electrophoresis.
How can I make a stock solution of Product E8751, Ethidium bromide?
Ethidium bromide is soluble in water at 100 mg/mL. Per Crary, B. and Boyrsenko, M., Biotechniques, 4, 98-101 (1986), stock solutions of ethidium bromide in water or PBS are stable for at least two years at room temperature if protected from light.
How can I dispose of solutions containing Product E8751, Ethidium bromide?
Ethidium bromide is mutagenic, and ultimately has to be destroyed by incineration. It can be removed from buffer solutions by several methods to reduce the volume of waste. See the product sheet for more details.
What is the Department of Transportation shipping information for this product?
Transportation information can be found in Section 14 of the product's (M)SDS.To access the shipping information for this material, use the link on the product detail page for the product.
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Protocols & Articles

Articles

Ethidium Bromide

Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is a fluorescent dye widely used in molecular biology research. Early usage was as a veterinary trypanocide.14 It is a mutagenic compound that intercalates double-stranded DNA...
Keywords: Absorption, Electrophoresis, Gel electrophoresis, Melting, Molecular biology, Veterinary

Peer-Reviewed Papers
15

References

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