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17-10228 Sigma-Aldrich

LentiBrite Histone H2B-RFP Lentiviral Biosensor

Synonym: Histone H2B

  •  eCl@ss 34360190



Quality Level   100
mfr. no.   Chemicon®
application(s)   cell analysis: suitable (cell based assay)
  immunocytochemistry: suitable
  immunofluorescence: suitable
  transfection: suitable
UniProt accession no.   Q8N257
detection method   fluorescent
shipped in   dry ice


General description

Read our application note in Nature Methods!
(Click Here!)

Learn more about the advantages of our LentiBrite Lentiviral Biosensors! Click Here

Biosensors can be used to detect the presence/absence of a particular protein as well as the subcellular location of that protein within the live state of a cell. Fluorescent tags are often desired as a means to visualize the protein of interest within a cell by either fluorescent microscopy or time-lapse video capture. Visualizing live cells without disruption allows researchers to observe cellular conditions in real time.

Lentiviral vector systems are a popular research tool used to introduce gene products into cells. Lentiviral transfection has advantages over non-viral methods such as chemical-based transfection including higher-efficiency transfection of dividing and non-dividing cells, long-term stable expression of the transgene, and low immunogenicity.

EMD Millipore is introducing LentiBrite Lentiviral Biosensors, a new suite of pre-packaged lentiviral particles encoding important and foundational proteins of autophagy, apoptosis, and cell structure for visualization under different cell/disease states in live cell and in vitro analysis.

  • Pre-packaged, fluorescently-tagged with GFP & RFP
  • Higher efficiency transfection as compared to traditional chemical-based and other non-viral-based transfection methods
  • Ability to transfect dividing, non-dividing, and difficult-to-transfect cell types, such as primary cells or stem cells
  • Non-disruptive towards cellular function

EMD Millipore’s LentiBrite Histone H2B-RFP lentiviral particles provide bright fluorescence and precise localization to enable live cell analysis of chromosomal dynamics in difficult-to-transfect cell types.

Chromatin, the higher order structure of DNA and nucleosomes, constitutes the majority of the nucleus of the eukaryotic cell. Changes in chromatin structure are the essence of many essential nuclear processes, including transcription, mitosis, meiosis, and apoptosis. The nucleosome comprises an octomer of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Genetic fusions between histone H2B and fluorescent proteins have been widely used in live cells to visualize the dynamics of chromosomal architecture during various processes. In addition to its utility for studying normal mitosis, histone H2B-GFP has been utilized to define mechanisms for asymmetric inheritance of oncogenic double minute chromosomes. Monitoring histone H2B-GFP also permits continuous analysis of chromosomal degradation during apoptosis. Use of histone H2B-GFP has recently been extended to live animals and high-throughput siRNA screens.
EMD Millipore’s LentiBrite Histone H2B-RFP lentiviral particles provide bright fluorescence and precise localization to enable live cell analysis of chromosomal dynamics in difficult-to-transfect cell types.


Fluorescence microscopy imaging:
(See Figure 1 in datasheet)
HeLa cells were plated in a chamber slide and transduced with lentiviral particles at an MOI of 20 for 24 hours. After media replacement and 48 hours further incubation, cells were fixed with formaldehyde and mounted. Images were obtained by oil immersion wide-field fluorescence microscopy. The histone H2B-RFP signal shows interphase nuclei, with the lower nuclei connected by a strand representing a segregation defect.

Additional cell types and Hard-to-transfect cell types:
(See Figure 2 in datasheet)
Primary HUVECs were transduced at an MOI of 20. The image depicts an irregular interphase nucleus. HT1080 were transduced at an MOI of 40 for 24 hours. The image depicts an interphase nucleus. Human mesenchymal stem cells (HuMSC) transduced with lentiviral particles at an MOI of 40. The cell is in anaphase and displays lagging chromosomes.

Mitosis in Various Stages:
(See Figure 3 in datasheet)
U2OS cells were plated in chamber slides and transduced with lentiviral particles at an MOI of 20 for 24 hours. The images show cells in various stages of mitosis.

For optimal fluorescent visualization, it is recommended to analyze the target expression level within 24-48 hrs after transfection/infection for optimal live cell analysis, as fluorescent intensity may dim over time, especially in difficult-to-transfect cell lines. Infected cells may be frozen down after successful transfection/infection and thawed in culture to retain positive fluorescent expression beyond 24-48 hrs. Length and intensity of fluorescent expression varies between cell lines. Higher MOIs may be required for difficult-to-transfect cell lines.

Research Category
Apoptosis & Cancer

Epigenetics & Nuclear Function

Research Sub Category
Apoptosis - Additional

Cell Cycle, DNA Replication & Repair


Histone H2B-TagRFP Lentivirus:
One vial containing 25 µL of lentiviral particles at a minimum of 3 x 10E8 infectious units (IFU) per mL.
For lot-specific titer information, please see lot specific “Viral Titer” in the product specifications of the datasheet.

EF-1 (Elongation Factor-1)

Multiplicty of Infection (MOI)
MOI = Ratio of # of infectious lentiviral particles (IFU) to # of cells being infected.
Typical MOI values for high transduction efficiency and signal intensity are in the range of 20-40. For this target, some cell types may require lower MOIs (e.g., HT-1080, HeLa, human mesenchymal stem cells (HuMSC)), while others may require higher MOIs (e.g., human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), U2OS).
NOTE: MOI should be titrated and optimized by the end user for each cell type and lentiviral target to achieve desired transduction efficiency and signal intensity.


Evaluated by transduction of HT-1080 cells and fluorescent imaging performed for assessment of target localization and transduction efficiency.

Physical form

PEG precipitation

Storage and Stability

Storage and Handling
Lentivirus is stable for at least 4 months from date of receipt when stored at -80°C. After first thaw, place immediately on ice and freeze in working aliquots at -80°C. Frozen aliquots may be stored for at least 2 months. Further freeze/thaws may result in decreased virus titer and transduction efficiency.

Replication-defective lentiviral vectors, such as the 3rd Generation vector provided in this product, are not known to cause any diseases in humans or animals. However, lentiviruses can integrate into the host cell genome and thus pose some risk of insertional mutagenesis. Material is a Risk Group 2 and should be handled under BSL2 controls. A detailed discussion of biosafety of lentiviral vectors is provided in Pauwels, K. et al. (2009). State-of-the-art lentiviral vectors for research use: Risk assessment and biosafety recommendations. Curr. Gene Ther. 9: 459-474.

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Safety Information for this product is unavailable at this time.
Protocols & Articles


Live Cell Imaging with Fluorescent Lentiviral Biosensors

Live Cell Imaging of β-Actin Cytoskeleton Proteins using LentiBrite™ Fluorescent Biosensors
Keywords: Apoptosis, Autophagy, Fluorescent microscopy, Gene expression, Microscopy, Transfection

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