244511 Sigma-Aldrich


anhydrous, 99.8%

  • CAS Number 108-88-3

  • Linear Formula C6H5CH3

  • Molecular Weight 92.14

  •  Beilstein/REAXYS Number 635760

  •  EC Number 203-625-9

  •  MDL number MFCD00008512

  •  eCl@ss 39011102

  •  PubChem Substance ID 57648083

  •  NACRES NA.21



Related Categories Anhydrous, Anhydrous Solvents, Cell Biology, Chemical Deglycosylation, Deglycosylation Strategies,
Quality Level   200
grade   anhydrous
vapor density   3.2 (vs air)
vapor pressure   22 mmHg ( 20 °C)
  26 mmHg ( 25 °C)
assay   99.8%
form   liquid
autoignition temp.   997 °F
expl. lim.   7 %
impurities   <0.001% water
  <0.005% water (100 mL pkg)
evapn. residue   <0.0005%
color   colorless
refractive index   n/D 1.496 (lit.)
bp   110-111 °C (lit.)
mp   -93 °C (lit.)
density   0.865 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
storage temp.   room temp
SMILES string   Cc1ccccc1
InChI   1S/C7H8/c1-7-5-3-2-4-6-7/h2-6H,1H3


General description

Toluene, a flammable liquid with a pungent odor, is widely employed as an organic solvent. It is also used as a precursor for synthesizing benzene.


Toluene undergoes alkylation in the presence of modified ZSM (Zeolite Socony Mobil)-5-class zeolite catalysts to form p-xylene with high selectivity. When doped on graphene, it acts as an electron donor leading to alteration in graphene electrical properties due to electrochemical interaction.


1, 6×1, 2, 4×2 L in Sure/Seal™

18 L in Pure-Pac™ 1

20 L in Pure-Pac™ 2

200 L in Kilo-Lab™

200 L in Pure-Pac™ 1

56 L in Pure-Pac™ 1

View returnable container options.

100, 12×100 mL in Sure/Seal™

400 L in Kilo-Lab™

Other Notes

Pure-Pac® II containers require the Micromatic MacroValve coupler for dispensing solvents, Z560723.

Legal Information

Pure-Pac is a registered trademark of Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Signal word 
Target organs 
Central nervous system
UN1294 - class 3 - PG 2 - Toluene
WGK Germany 
Flash Point(F) 
39.2 °F
Flash Point(C) 
4.0 °C


Certificate of Analysis (COA)

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Certificate of Origin (COO)

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Protocols & Articles


A New Biarylphosphine Ligand for the Pd-Catalyzed Synthesis of Diaryl Ethers under Mild Conditions

An efficient, general palladium catalyst for C-O bond-forming reactions of secondary and primary alcohols with a range of aryl halides has been developed using the ligand�1. Heteroaryl halides, and f...
Keywords: Chromatography, Flash chromatography, Ligands

A Single Phosphine Ligand Allows Palladium-Catalyzed Intermolecular C-O Bond Formation with Secondary and Primary Alcohols-

The substrate scope of the copper-free Sonogashira coupling has been successfully extended to cyclopropyl iodides, allowing an efficient access to a wide variety of functionalized alkynyl cyclopropan...
Keywords: Chromatography, Flash chromatography, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Purification, Sonogashira Coupling, Spectroscopy

Anhydrous Solvents for Coupling Reactions

Due to the sensitivity to air and moisture, coupling reactions often require relatively low air and water conditions to initiate the reaction. Therefore, the use of anhydrous solvents is highly recom...
Keywords: Coupling reactions, Cross couplings, Negishi Coupling, Solvents

Anhydrous Solvents for Organic and Organometallic Chemistry

Many well-known reactions require water-free conditions to initiate or complete the reaction. Failure to include anhydrous solvents can result in low product yield or reaction failure. As the market ...
Keywords: Acylations, Alkylations, Electrophilic aromatic substitution, Formylations, Grignard Reaction, Solvents, Substitutions, Vilsmeier-Haack reaction

BrettPhos Ligand Supported Palladium-Catalyzed C-O Bond Formation through an Electronic Pathway of Reductive Elimination: Fluoroalkoxylation of Activated Aryl Halides

A Pd/N-heterocyclic carbene-based catalyst achieves the Sonogashira coupling of an array of functionalized, ?-hydrogen-containing alkyl bromides and iodides under mild conditions. By furnishing the f...
Keywords: Chromatography, Cross couplings, Flash chromatography, Ligands, Sonogashira Coupling

C-O Cross-Coupling of Activated Aryl and Heteroaryl Halides with Aliphatic Alcohols-

We report an unprecedented BrettPhos ligand supported Pd-catalyzed C-O bond-forming reaction of activated aryl halides with primary fluoroalkyl alcohols. We demonstrate that the Phosphine ligand (Bre...
Keywords: Catalysis, Eliminations, Ligands, Reductive eliminations, Thin layer chromatography

Catalytic Direct Cross-Coupling of Organolithium Compounds with Aryl Chlorides

Complex, hindered biaryls have been prepared at temperatures ranging from 1�C to room temperature, or with gentle heating. The Pd-PEPPSI-IPent catalyst nicely couples starting materials containing ac...
Keywords: Chromatography, Flash chromatography

Highly Selective Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Secondary Alkylzinc Reagents with Heteroaryl Halides | Materials & Procedure

The highly selective palladium-catalyzed Negishi coupling of secondary alkylzinc reagents with heteroaryl halides is described. The development of atseries of biarylphosphine ligands has led to the i...
Keywords: Catalysis, Eliminations, Gas chromatography, Ligands, Negishi Coupling, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Oxidative additions, Reductive eliminations

Inorganic Graphene Analogues

Nanomaterials have steadily established their presence in day to-day life owing to their many-fold efficiency over bulk materials and due to the advancements in processing that have rendered them rem...
Keywords: Adsorption, Asymmetric synthesis, Centrifugation, Chemical vapor deposition, Deposition, Electronics, Environmental, Filtration, Homogenization, Metal organic frameworks, Nanomaterials, Nanotubes, Nucleic acid annealing, Oxidations, Positron Emission Tomography, Printed electronics, Semiconductor, Separation, Solar cells, Solvents, Spin coating

KitAlysis High-Throughput Metal Scavenger Reaction Screening Kit

The screening sets come pre-loaded with 12 scavengers / resins (10mg or 50mg) in each vial according to the following design.
Keywords: Metal scavengers

Negishi cross-coupling of secondary alkylzinc halides with aryl/heteroaryl halides using Pd-PEPPSI-IPent

Over the past two decades, considerable attention has been given to the development of new ligands for the palladium-catalyzed arylation of amines and related NH-containing substrates (i.e. Buchwald-...
Keywords: Aminations, Arylations, Buchwald-Hartwig amination, Catalysis, Chromatography, Column chromatography, Cross couplings, Gas chromatography, Hydroaminations, Ligands, Thin layer chromatography

Pd-Catalyzed Alkynylation of 2-Chloroacetates and 2-Chloroacetamides with Potassium Alkynyltrifluoroborates

A practical method for palladium-catalyzed cyanation of aryl halides using Pd/C is described. The new method can be applied to a variety of aryl bromide and active aryl chloride substrates to effect ...
Keywords: Catalysis, Chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography

Pd-Catalyzed Synthesis of Ar-SCF3 Compounds under Mild Conditions-

We report the first example of a coupling reaction of chiral secondary boronic esters generated by the hydroboration of vinyl arenes. In order for the reaction to take place in high yields, the use o...
Keywords: Chromatography, Column chromatography, Coupling reactions, Supercritical fluid chromatography

Pressure-Temperature Calculator for Solvents

*Calculations provide estimated results based on Antoine's Coefficients and their associated temperature range values. Antoine's Coefficients were obtained from the National Institute of Standards an...

Rational and Predictable Chemoselective Synthesis of Oligoamines via Buchwald-Hartwig Amination of (Hetero)Aryl Chlorides Employing Mor-DalPhos

We report our studies on the use of two catalyst systems, based on the ligands BrettPhos and RuPhos, which provide the widest scope for Pd-catalyzed C-N cross-coupling reactions to date. Often low ca...
Keywords: Catalysis, Coupling reactions, Cross couplings, Ligands, Pharmaceutical

Selective Amination of Polyhalopyridines Catalyzed by a Palladium-Xantphos Complex

Amination of 5-bromo-2-chloropyridine (1a) catalyzed by a palladium-Xantphos complex predominately gives 5-amino-2-chloropyridine product 3a in 96% isolated yield and excellent chemoselectivity (3a/4...
Keywords: Aminations, Catalysis, Chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography

Selective Monoarylation of Acetate Esters and Aryl Methyl Ketones Using Aryl Chlorides

A series of palladacyclic precatalysts that incorporate electron-rich di-tert-butylphosphino biaryl ligands is reported. These precatalysts are easily prepared, and their use provides a general means...
Keywords: Amidations, Catalysis, Chromatography, Coupling reactions, Cross couplings, Flash chromatography, Ligands, Thin layer chromatography

Stereospecific Pd-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions of Secondary Alkylboron Nucleophiles and Aryl Chlorides

We report the development of a Pd-catalyzed process for the stereospecific cross-coupling of unactivated secondary alkylboron nucleophiles and aryl chlorides. This process tolerates the use of second...
Keywords: Catalysis, Chromatography, Column chromatography, Coupling reactions, Cross couplings, Isomerizations

Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling of Potassium Dioxolanylethyltrifluoroborate and Aryl/Heteroaryl Chlorides

A robust and general catalyst system�facilitates the alkoxylation of activated heteroaryl halides with primary, secondary, and select tertiary alcohols without the need for an excess of either coupli...
Keywords: High performance liquid chromatography, Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, Purification

Synthesis and Application of Palladium Precatalysts that Accommodate Extremely Bulky Di-tert-butylphosphino Biaryl Ligands

An umpolung approach to the synthesis of diaryl ketones has been developed based on in situ generation of acyl anion equivalents and their catalytic arylation. This method entails the base-promoted, ...
Keywords: Arylations, Catalysis, Chromatography, Cross couplings, Flash chromatography

Related Content

Agriculture | Crop Protection Workflow

Pesticides are an essential component in modern agriculture and enable growers to fully realize the yield potential of their seeds. From compound discovery to active ingredient development, our chemi...
Keywords: Agriculture, Building blocks, Gas chromatography, Gas chromatography mass spectrometry, High performance liquid chromatography, Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, Mass spectrometry, Organic synthesis, Pesticides, Polymerase chain reaction - quantitative, Purification, Solvents

Peer-Reviewed Papers


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