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50933 Sigma-Aldrich

Guanidine hydrochloride

BioUltra, for molecular biology, ≥99.5% (AT)

Synonym: Aminoformamidine hydrochloride, Aminomethanamidine hydrochloride, Guanidinium chloride

  • CAS Number 50-01-1

  • Linear Formula NH2C(=NH)NH2 · HCl

  • Molecular Weight 95.53

  •  Beilstein/REAXYS Number 3591990

  •  EC Number 200-002-3

  •  MDL number MFCD00013026

  •  PubChem Substance ID 57651284



Related Categories Alphabetical, BioUltra, Biochemicals and Reagents, Chaotropic Agents, DNA & RNA Purification,
Quality Level   200
biological source   synthetic
grade   for molecular biology
product line   BioUltra
assay   ≥99.5% (AT)
form   powder or crystals
application(s)   RNA extraction: suitable
impurities   DNases, none detected
  RNases, none detected
  insoluble matter, passes filter test
  phosphatases, none detected
  proteases, none detected
ign. residue   ≤0.05% (as SO4)
loss   ≤0.05% loss on drying, 20 °C (HV)
color   colorless to white,

pH   4.5-6.0 (25 °C, 6 M in H2O)
mp   180-185 °C (lit.)
solubility   H2O: 6 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
density   1.3 g/cm3 (lit.)
anion traces   sulfate (SO42-): ≤50 mg/kg
cation traces   Al: ≤5 mg/kg
  As: ≤0.1 mg/kg
  Ba: ≤5 mg/kg
  Bi: ≤5 mg/kg
  Ca: ≤10 mg/kg
  Cd: ≤5 mg/kg
  Co: ≤5 mg/kg
  Cr: ≤5 mg/kg
  Cu: ≤5 mg/kg
  Fe: ≤5 mg/kg
  K: ≤50 mg/kg
  Li: ≤5 mg/kg
  Mg: ≤5 mg/kg
  Mn: ≤5 mg/kg
  Mo: ≤5 mg/kg
  Na: ≤50 mg/kg
  Ni: ≤5 mg/kg
  Pb: ≤5 mg/kg
  Sr: ≤5 mg/kg
  Zn: ≤5 mg/kg
λ   6 M in H2O
SMILES string   Cl[H].NC(N)=N
UV absorption   λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.03
  λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.02
storage temp.   room temp
InChI   1S/CH5N3.ClH/c2-1(3)4;/h(H5,2,3,4);1H
Gene Information   human ... KCNA1(3736), KCNA10(3744), KCNA2(3737), KCNA3(3738), KCNA4(3739), KCNA5(3741), KCNA6(3742), KCNA7(3743), KCNB1(3745), KCNB2(9312), KCNC1(3746), KCNC2(3747), KCNC3(3748), KCNC4(3749), KCND1(3750), KCND2(3751), KCND3(3752), KCNF1(3754), KCNG1(3755), KCNG2(26251), KCNG3(170850), KCNG4(93107), KCNH1(3756), KCNH2(3757), KCNH3(23416), KCNH4(23415), KCNH5(27133), KCNH6(81033), KCNH7(90134), KCNH8(131096), KCNQ1(3784), KCNQ2(3785), KCNQ3(3786), KCNQ4(9132), KCNQ5(56479), KCNS1(3787), KCNS2(3788), KCNS3(3790), KCNV1(27012), KCNV2(169522)


General description

Guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) is a well-known protein and enzyme denaturant. It is a small molecule and hydroscopic in nature.


Guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) has been used as a component of the phosphate buffer saline (PBS) for the incubation of Schlemm’s canal (SC) cells. It has also been used as a component of the digestion buffer for the gelation and expansion of human HeLa229 cells. GdnHCl is also used to isolate RNA.

Strong chaotropic agent useful for the denaturation and subsequent refolding of proteins. This strong denaturant can solubilize insoluble or denatured proteins such as inclusion bodies. This can be used as the first step in refolding proteins or enzymes into their active form. Urea and dithiothreitol (DTT) may also be necessary.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) is involved in conformational changes and loss of enzyme activity due to inactivation of the enzyme. It is involved in the loss of activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) enzyme in Haliotis diversicolor. GdnHCl functions by hampering the activity of heat shock protein 104 (Hsp104) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) in vivo. It can also inactivate enzymes like papain and aminocyclase. Higher concentrations of GdnHCl leads to viral inactivation of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1).

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

GHS07  GHS07
Signal word 
Hazard statements 
Personal Protective Equipment 
NONH for all modes of transport
WGK Germany 
Flash Point(F) 
Not applicable
Flash Point(C) 
Not applicable
Protocols & Articles
Peer-Reviewed Papers


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