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A9519 Sigma

N-Acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine hydrate

≥98% (TLC)

Synonym: Adjuvant Peptide, Muramyl dipeptide

  • CAS Number 53678-77-6

  • Empirical Formula (Hill Notation) C19H32N4O11 · xH2O

  • Molecular Weight 492.48 (anhydrous basis)

  •  Beilstein Registry Number 4220745

  •  EC Number 258-696-9

  •  MDL number MFCD00077638

  •  PubChem Substance ID 24891464



Related Categories Bacteria-derived adjuvants, Cell Biology, Cell Culture, Cell Signaling and Neuroscience, Other Peptides,
assay   ≥98% (TLC)
storage temp.   −20°C


Amino Acid Sequence


Biochem/physiol Actions

Enhances antigenicity of weak antigens, increasing antibody titer.

Enhances antigenicity of weak antigens, increasing antibody titer.

Muramyl peptides are monomeric components that make up the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan. It is generally produced by mammalian macrophages, as an immune response in the breakdown of bacterial cell wall. MDP promotes the production of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which increase slow-wave sleep.

N-Acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP, muramyl dipeptide), a neurotrophic and immunomodulatory factor related to bacterial peptidoglycans, is used as an immune modulation factor that enhances immune response and to study neural development.


Bottomless glass bottle. Contents are inside inserted fused cone.


N-Acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine hydrate has been used in staphylococcal cell wall preparation to induce the release of TNF from human monocytes.

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

NONH for all modes of transport
WGK Germany 


Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Protocols & Articles


Common Cell Culture Problems: Cell Clumping

Cells in suspension may attach to one another and form clumps for a variety of reasons. The most common cause of cell clumping is the presence of free DNA and cell debris in the culture medium, which...
Keywords: Adhesion, Apoptosis, Cell culture, Cell disruption, Culture media, Environmental, Flow cytometry

Common Cell Culture Problems: Cell Death

There is perhaps nothing more frustrating to a cell culturist than removing a dish from the incubator only to find that it’s full of dead cells. Getting to the bottom of the problem can be very chall...
Keywords: Antibiotics, Apoptosis, Autophagy, Buffers, Cell culture, Cell disruption, Cryopreservation, Culture media, Environmental, Enzyme activity, Filtration, Metabolism, Peptide synthesis, Reductions

Common Cell Culture Problems: Cell Line Cross-Contamination and Misidentification

A few years after scientists working at Johns Hopkins established the first human cell line using cervical epithelial cells (HeLa) from cancer patient Henrietta Lacks in the early 1950s, it was obser...
Keywords: Cancer, Cell culture, Cryopreservation, Forensic, Genetic, Phase transitions, Polymerase chain reaction

Common Cell Culture Problems: Contamination

Overview Types of Contamination Common Causes and Prevention of Contaminants    Microbial (bacteria, fungi, yeast)    Mycoplasma    Viral Contamination    Chemical Contamination General Tips and Tech...
Keywords: Antibiotics, Antifungals, Apoptosis, Buffers, Cell attachment, Cell culture, Culture media, Detergents, Eliminations, Environmental, Filtration, Fluorescent microscopy, Gene expression, Indicators, Metabolism, Microscopy, Polymerase chain reaction, Sterilizations

Common Cell Culture Problems: Poor Attachment of Adherent Cells

Optimal cell attachment in vitro requires the interaction of healthy cells with a wide range of cell-derived attachment molecules present in media, serum, and supplements. Cultureware surfaces are fr...
Keywords: Buffers, Cell attachment, Cell culture, Culture media, Decarboxylations, Environmental, Growth factors, Lipid peroxidation, Peroxidations, Precipitation, Reductions, Respiration

Common Cell Culture Problems: Precipitates

When contamination is ruled out, turbidity in cell culture media is often explained by the precipitation of metals, proteins, and other media components. Precipitates can be harmful to cell health, a...
Keywords: Antibiotics, Cell culture, Culture media, Desiccation, Evaporation, Filtration, Microscopy, Nucleic acid denaturation, Precipitation, Purification


Common Cell Culture Problems: Poor Cell Growth

Ensuring adequate cell growth is a critical part of collecting accurate data with cell cultures. Cells can be cultured in suspension, or as a monolayer that attaches to cultureware, such as a flask, ...
Keywords: Antibiotics, Apoptosis, Buffers, Cell attachment, Cell culture, Condensations, Cryopreservation, Culture media, Evaporation, Filtration, Microscopy, Phase transitions, Reductions

Peer-Reviewed Papers


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