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C2867 Sigma-Aldrich

Cytochrome c from equine heart

BioUltra, ≥99% (SDS-PAGE)

Synonym: Cytochrome c from horse heart

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Description

General description

This cytochrome c product is prepared from equine heart using trichloroacetic acid. Alternatively, acetic acid may be used to prepare cytochrome c. The trichloroacetic acid method may reduce the amount of superoxide dismutase (SOD) present, but tends to cause dimerization or acid-modified structures of cytochrome c. In contrast, acetic acid preparations may have slightly higher amounts of SOD, but a lower proportion of dimeric cytochrome c.
The product is supplied as a lyophilized powder. The final step before lyophilization is extensive dialysis against 6 mM ammonium hydroxide, which is volatile under lyophilization conditions, so the final product should not contain any buffer salts. The product is mainly the oxidized form of the protein. The reduced form of cytochrome c can be prepared with either sodium dithionite or sodium ascorbate, followed by gel filtration.

Application

Cytochrome c has been identified as an important mediator in apoptotic pathways. The release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytoplasm stimulates apoptosis and is commonly used as an indicator of the apoptotic process in the cell. Investigation on the effect of Paris saponin I (PS I) on human gastric carcinoma cell growth (SGC7901 cells) have shown an elevated level cytoplasmic cytochrome c. Results are an inhibition of proliferation in SGC7901 cells by inducing mitochondria-dependent apoptosis through cytochrome c.

The specific sites and extent of oxidation in horse cytochrome c treated with H2O2 and UV were characterized. It was suggested that the state of these sites could be used as a biomarker for the oxidative environment in a cell.

Packaging

10, 50 mg in glass bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Cytochrome c is primarily known as an electron-carrying mitochondrial protein. The transition of cytochrome c between the ferrous and ferric states within the cell makes it an efficient biological electron-transporter and it plays a vital role in cellular oxidations in both plants and animals. It is generally regarded as a universal catalyst of respiration, forming an essential electron-bridge between the respirable substrates and oxygen

Preparation Note

A further purification of C2506

Prepared using TCA.

Other Notes

View more information on cytochrome c and electron transport at www.sigma-aldrich.com/enzymeexplorer.

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

RIDADR 
NONH for all modes of transport
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
HA5365000

Documents

Certificate of Analysis

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Certificate of Origin

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Frequently Asked Questions

Which document(s) contains shelf-life or expiration date information for a given product?
If available for a given product, the recommended re-test date or the expiration date can be found on the Certificate of Analysis.
How do I get lot-specific information or a Certificate of Analysis?
The lot specific COA document can be found by entering the lot number above under the "Documents" section.
How do I find price and availability?
There are several ways to find pricing and availability for our products.Once you log onto our website, you will find the price and availability displayed on the product detail page.You can contact any of our Customer Sales and Service offices to receive a quote. USA customers: 1-800-325-3010 orview local office numbers.
What is the Department of Transportation shipping information for this product?
Transportation information can be found in Section 14 of the product's (M)SDS.To access the shipping information for this material, use the link on the product detail page for the product.
I see that you list several horse heart cytochrome c products. What are the differences, and which one should I choose?
Product No. C2506 is prepared with trichloroacetic acid (TCA), whereas C7752 is prepared with the milder acetic acid. The TCA method may reduce the amount of superoxide dismutase (SOD) present, but tends to cause dimerization or acid-modified structures of cytochrome c. In contrast, acetic acid preparations may have slightly higher amounts of SOD, but a lower proportion of dimeric cytochrome c. So C2506 would be recommended for enzyme activity studies that require low SOD, whereas C7752 is recommended for structural studies or binding studies, or for enzyme activity studies where possible SOD contamination is not a problem. Product No. C2867 is prepared from C2506; it is a BioUtra grade product, greater than or equal to 99% pure as determined by SDS-PAGE. It is recommended when an ultra-high purity is required.Product No. C3256 is also prepared from C7752; it is isolated by ion-exchange chromatography. This fraction shows a high rate of ascorbic acid oxidation, but low activity in a cytochrome oxidase system.Product No. C7150 is also prepared from C7752; it is suitable for use as a gel filtration molecular weight marker.
How do I determine how much ofProduct C2867, Cytochrome c, is in the oxidized form, and how much is reduced?
This is determined by a spectral assay. The detailed assay procedure (operating procedure #11252) may be requested from Sigma St. Louis Technical Service (techserv@sial.com).
Is Product C2867, Cytochrome c, predominantly in the oxidized form or the reduced form?
This product is predominantly (>95%) in the oxidized form.
How should I store solutions of Product C2867, Cytochrome c?
Our general recommendations are as follows:Store at 20 °C (freezer) for up to six months. Store at 2-8 °C (refrigerator) for up to two weeks. Store at 20-25 °C (room temperature) for up to three days. According to J. Biol. Chem, 237, 2161-2174 (1962), cytochrome c is stable to boiling, and over an unusually wide range of pH values. However, it denatures readily at extreme pH (low or high), and in high concentrations of organic solvents, such as ethanol or acetone.
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Protocols & Articles

Articles

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TLC Analysis of Digested Proteins on Silica gel 60 RP-18

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TLC Analysis of Proteins on ProteoChrom® HPTLC Silica gel 60 F254s

From our library of Articles, Sigma-Aldrich presents TLC Analysis of Proteins on ProteoChrom® HPTLC Silica gel 60 F254s

Peer-Reviewed Papers
15

References

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