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G3272 Sigma-Aldrich

Guanidine hydrochloride

for molecular biology, ≥99%

Synonym: Aminoformamidine hydrochloride, Aminomethanamidine hydrochloride, Guanidinium chloride

  • CAS Number 50-01-1

  • Linear Formula NH2C(=NH)NH2 · HCl

  • Molecular Weight 95.53

  •  Beilstein/REAXYS Number 3591990

  •  EC Number 200-002-3

  •  MDL number MFCD00013026

  •  PubChem Substance ID 24895119

  •  NACRES NA.31



Related Categories Biochemicals, Biochemicals and Reagents, Buffers / Buffer Salts, Chaotropic Agents, Core Bioreagents,
Quality Level   400
biological source   synthetic (organic)
grade   for molecular biology
assay   ≥99%
form   crystalline powder
application(s)   RNA extraction: suitable
impurities   ≤0.3% water (Karl Fischer)
color   white
pH   (25 °C, 4.6 - 6/573 g/L)
mp   180-185 °C (lit.)
solubility   H2O: 6 M, clear, colorless
density   1.3 g/cm3 (lit.)
cation traces   Pb: ≤5 ppm
UV absorption   λ: 260 nm Amax: ≤0.10
  λ: 290 nm Amax: ≤0.05
foreign activity   DNase, RNase, none detected
SMILES string   Cl[H].NC(N)=N
InChI   1S/CH5N3.ClH/c2-1(3)4;/h(H5,2,3,4);1H
Gene Information   human ... KCNA1(3736), KCNA10(3744), KCNA2(3737), KCNA3(3738), KCNA4(3739), KCNA5(3741), KCNA6(3742), KCNA7(3743), KCNB1(3745), KCNB2(9312), KCNC1(3746), KCNC2(3747), KCNC3(3748), KCNC4(3749), KCND1(3750), KCND2(3751), KCND3(3752), KCNF1(3754), KCNG1(3755), KCNG2(26251), KCNG3(170850), KCNG4(93107), KCNH1(3756), KCNH2(3757), KCNH3(23416), KCNH4(23415), KCNH5(27133), KCNH6(81033), KCNH7(90134), KCNH8(131096), KCNQ1(3784), KCNQ2(3785), KCNQ3(3786), KCNQ4(9132), KCNQ5(56479), KCNS1(3787), KCNS2(3788), KCNS3(3790), KCNV1(27012), KCNV2(169522)



Guanidine hydrochloride has been used:
• as a component of the extraction buffer for the extraction of proteoglycans
• in extraction during protein fractionation of ATDC5 cell lines
• as a chemical additive to study its effective absorbance spectra in structural analysis
• to incubate the device chip to release prostate-specific antigen and for regeneration of aptamer
• as a component of the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) solution for detecting protein carbonyls by protein carbonylation study
• in RNA isolation to dissociate nucleoproteins and inhibit RNase

Strong chaotropic agent useful for the denaturation and subsequent refolding of proteins. This strong denaturant can solubilize insoluble or denatured proteins such as inclusion bodies. This can be used as the first step in refolding proteins or enzymes into their active form. Urea and dithiothreitol (DTT) may also be necessary.


1, 2 kg in poly bottle

100, 500 g in poly bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) is a small hydroscopic molecule. It plays a role in inhibiting heat shock protein 104 (Hsp104) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity in vivo. It is a potent denaturant and inactivator of several enzymes and proteins. GuHCl can inactivate aminoacylase and papain. It is involved in unfolding and inactivation of alkaline phosphatase in Haliotis diversicolor. At higher concentrations, GuHCl is involved in virus inactivation such as Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1).


May agglomerate upon storage. The quality of the product does not appear to be affected and solutions prepared from the free-flowing and lumpy guanidine hydrochloride appear identical.

Preparation Note

In order to make an 8M solution in water, one must heat the solution to 35 °C for approximately 30 minutes.
The maximum solubility of guanidine hydrochloride in water at room temperature is approximately 6M.

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

GHS07  GHS07
Signal word 
Hazard statements 
Personal Protective Equipment 
NONH for all modes of transport
WGK Germany 
Flash Point(F) 
Not applicable
Flash Point(C) 
Not applicable
Protocols & Articles


TRI Reagent® Protocol

TRI Reagent® solution (also sold as TRIzol) is a mixture of a mixture of guanidine thiocyanate and phenol in a monophase solution that is used for the isolation of DNA, RNA and protein from biologica...
Keywords: AGE, Buffers, Cell disruption, Centrifugation, Degradations, Digestions, Electrophoresis, Evaporation, Gel electrophoresis, Homogenization, PAGE, Polymerase chain reaction, Precipitation, Sample preparations, Separation, Solvents, Western blot

Peer-Reviewed Papers


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