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H9395 Sigma-Aldrich

α-Hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus

lyophilized powder, Protein ~60 % by Lowry, ≥10,000 units/mg protein

Synonym: α-Toxin



Related Categories Biochemicals and Reagents, Cell Biology, Cell Lysis Reagents, Cell Lysis Reagents Enzymes, Cell Signaling and Neuroscience,
Quality Level   300
biological source   Staphylococcus aureus
form   lyophilized powder
specific activity   ≥10,000 units/mg protein
contains   sodium citrate buffer as balance
composition   Protein, ~60% Lowry
solubility   H2O: soluble 0.49-0.51 mg/mL
storage temp.   2-8°C
Gene Information   Staphylococcus aureus ... SAOUHSC_01121(3920722)



α-Hemolysin was used in a study to test the efflux pump and haemolysin activity of Escherichia coli of dairy origin. It was also used to test its adaptation to benzalkonium chloride and the effect of ciprofloxacin on biofilm formation.

Biochem/physiol Actions

α-Hemolysin is a 33 kDa extracellular protein secreted by most strains of pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus. It is selectively hemolytic and has a marked preference for rabbit red blood cells. It induces dermonecrosis, spastic muscle paralysis, and it is lethal for laboratory animals. The toxin must be in the monomeric form to initially bind to a membrane and specific receptors are not required for binding. Upon binding to biological membranes and/or artificial membranes, self-oligomerization occurs, resulting in ring structures (hexameric aggregates) believed to represent transmembrane pores, which are permeable to ions and small metabolites.
It is thought that α-hemolysin stimulates cellular phospholipases and induces a Ca2+ influx that can result in membrane disruption, leakage of cytoplasmic components, impaired membrane permeability, and osmotic lysis of the cells.

It is a channel-forming protein similar to complement and perforin, that penetrates the cell membrane and creates a defined size pore. It stimulates cellular phospholipase activity.


Package size based on protein content

Unit Definition

One hemolytic unit will cause 50% lysis of a 1% suspension of rabbit red blood cells in phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.0, containing 1% bovine serum albumin after 30 min at 37 °C followed by refrigeration for 30 min at 4 °C.

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

GHS07  GHS07
Signal word 
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
Personal Protective Equipment 
NONH for all modes of transport
WGK Germany 
Flash Point(F) 
Not applicable
Flash Point(C) 
Not applicable


Certificate of Analysis (COA)

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Certificate of Origin (COO)

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Protocols & Articles


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