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L2630 Sigma

Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O111:B4

purified by phenol extraction

Synonym: LPS



Related Categories Biochemicals and Reagents, Carbohydrates, Carbohydrates A to Z, Carbohydrates H-L, Complex Lipids,
Quality Level   PREMIUM
form   lyophilized powder
purified by   phenol extraction
storage temp.   2-8°C



Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are characteristic components of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS and its lipid A moiety stimulate cells of the innate immune system by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a member of the Toll-like receptor protein family, which recognizes common pathogen-associated molecular-patterns (PAMPs).

Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from Escherichia coli O111:B4 have been used for the stimulation of macrophages. They have been used for LPS preconditioning in mice.


10, 25, 100 mg in poly bottle

Preparation Note

The product is soluble in water (5 mg/ml) or cell culture medium (1 mg/ml) yielding a hazy, faint yellow solution. A more concentrated, though still hazy, solution (20 mg/ml) has been achieved in aqueous saline after vortexing and warming to 70-80 oC. Lipopolysaccharides are molecules that form micelles in every solvent. Hazy solutions are observed in water and phosphate buffered saline. Organic solvents do not give clearer solutions. Methanol yields a turbid suspension with floaters, while water yields a homogeneously hazy solution.

General description

Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are characteristic components of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. A typical LPS molecule has lipid A (a glucosamine-based phospholipid), a relatively short core oligosaccharide and a distal polysaccharide (O-antigen). LPSs contribute to the integrity of the outer membrane, and protect the cell against the action of bile salts and lipophilic antibiotics. They stimulate host cells via TLR2 and TLR4 (toll like receptors). This stimulation results in the generation of various proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNFα (tumor necrosis factor), IL-1 (interleukin 1) and IL-6.
This product is phenol extracted from Escherichia coli serotype O111:B4. The source strain is from a private collection. This LPS serotype has been used to stimulate B-cells and induce NOS (nitric oxide synthase) in human hepatocytes.

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

GHS07  GHS07
Signal word 
Hazard statements 
NONH for all modes of transport
WGK Germany 


Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Frequently Asked Questions

Which document(s) contains shelf-life or expiration date information for a given product?
If available for a given product, the recommended re-test date or the expiration date can be found on the Certificate of Analysis. These documents are located on the product detail page under Useful Links & Tools. Click on the following link to search for a Certificate of Analysis. Please click the following link to see the details on our Product Dating Information.
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A Certificate of Analysis is available by lot number and can be obtained through our Advanced Search Option: http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/AdvancedSearchPage.do
How do I find price and availability?
There are several ways to find pricing and availability for our products.  Once you log onto our website, you will find the price and availability displayed on the product detail page. You can contact any of our Customer Sales and Service offices to receive a quote.  USA customers:  1-800-325-3010 or view local office numbers. 
What is the Department of Transportation shipping information for this product?
Transportation information can be found in Section 14 of the product's (M)SDS. To access the shipping information for this material, use the link on the product detail page for the product, or search here. 
How concentrated a stock solution can I make of Product L2630, Lipopolysaccarides (LPS)?
One can try to make a 20 mg/mL solution at 70-80°C in saline, with vortexing and warming.  However, the solution will be hazy, because of the nature of LPS to form micelles in solutions like water or PBS.
What is the importance of the "purified by phenol extraction" description for Product L2630, Lipopolysaccarides (LPS)?
Different extraction methods for LPS leave different levels of potential nucleic acid and protein contaminations.  Phenol extraction can leave up to 60% RNA and <1% protein present.
What is the molecular weight of Product L2630, Lipopolysaccarides (LPS)?
We have not determined the molecular weight of this item. One reference, J. Biol. Chem., 250, 2911 (1975), states approximate values of 90,000 and 0.9-1.5 million, by both sedimentation velocity and gel filtration, for two forms of LPS that may be present.
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Protocols & Articles


Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are characteristic components of the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria; they are not found in Gram positive bacteria. They are localized in the outer layer of the membrane...
Keywords: Adsorption, Antibiotics, Cell culture, Cell disruption, Chromatography, Culture media, Filtration, Immunology, Ion Exchange, Metabolism, Positron Emission Tomography, Purification, Size-exclusion chromatography, Solvents

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