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T5944 Sigma-Aldrich

Tumor Necrosis Factor-α from rat

TNF-α, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, powder, suitable for cell culture

Synonym: Cachectin, TNF-α



Related Categories Cancer Research, Cell Biology, Cell Culture, Cell Signaling and Neuroscience, Cytokines & Growth Factors,
Quality Level   200
biological source   rat
recombinant   expressed in E. coli
assay   ≥98% (SDS-PAGE and HPLC)
form   powder
quality   endotoxin tested
mol wt   predicted mol wt ~17 kDa
packaging   pkg of 10 μg
  pkg of 50 μg
storage condition   avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles
application(s)   cell culture | mammalian: suitable
impurities   <1 EU/μgtested (LAL test)
color   white
solubility   water: soluble
UniProt accession no.   P16599
storage temp.   −20°C
Gene Information   rat ... Tnf(24835)


General description

The Tnf (tumor necrosis factor) gene is mapped to rat chromosome 20p12.


TNF-α influences the growth and function of both normal and neoplastic cells. TNF-α causes cytolysis or cytostasis of certain transformed cells being synergistic with γ-interferon in its cytotoxicity.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-α from rat has been used:
• To stimulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in the macrophages as an indication of M1 macrophage activation
• To study its effect on pancreatic β cell apoptosis
• To evaluate the effect of progesterone on the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in synovial membrane
• As a blocking antigen in the control, for immunohistochemical analysis

Biochem/physiol Actions

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), also known as cachectin, plays roles in antitumor activity, immune modulation, inflammation, anorexia, cachexia, septic shock, viral replication, and hematopoiesis. TNF-α is expressed by a variety of cells, with numerous inductive and suppressive agents. It is primarily produced by macrophages in response to immunological challenges such as bacteria (lipopolysaccharides), viruses, parasites, mitogens, and other cytokines. TNF-α is cytotoxic for many transformed cells (its namesake activity) but in normal diploid cells, it can stimulate proliferation (fibroblasts), differentiation (myeloid cells) or activation (neutrophils). TNF-α also shows antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses and it induces production of several other cytokines. TNF-α and the related molecule TNF-β (LT-α) share close structural homology with 28% amino acid sequence identity and both activate the same TNF receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2.

Physical form

Lyophilized from an 0.2 μm-filtered buffered solution with bovine serum albumin as a carrier.

Analysis Note

The biological activity is measured in a cytotoxic assay using a TNF-susceptible mouse L929 cell line in the presence of actinomycin D.

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

NONH for all modes of transport
WGK Germany 
Flash Point(F) 
Not applicable
Flash Point(C) 
Not applicable
Protocols & Articles


Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Superfamily

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily comprise an increasing number of structurally related ligand-receptor pairs, including TNF-α, TNF-β (lymphotoxin, LT), TNFR1, TNFR2, LT-βR, osteoprotegrin ...
Jennifer Fries
BioFiles 2009, 4.5, 23.
Keywords: Apoptosis, Biofiles, Cell disruption, Ligands, Microscopy, Type

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Cell culture has become one of the most fundamental techniques for modeling biological systems, and is of increasing importance in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sectors as well as an essential...
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Peer-Reviewed Papers


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