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T9698 Sigma-Aldrich

Thioredoxin Reductase from rat liver

buffered aqueous glycerol solution, ≥100 units/mg protein (Bradford)

Synonym: NADPH:Oxidised Thioredoxin Oxidoreductase, Thioredoxin: NADP+ Oxidoreductase



Related Categories 1.8.x.x Acting on sulfur group donors, 1.x.x.x Oxidoreductases, Application Index, Biochemicals and Reagents, Cell Biology,
Quality Level   200
biological source   rat liver
assay   ≥90% (GE)
form   buffered aqueous glycerol solution
specific activity   ≥100 units/mg protein (Bradford)
application(s)   activity assay: suitable
shipped in   dry ice
storage temp.   −20°C
Gene Information   rat ... Txnrd1(58819)



Thioredoxin Reductase from rat liver can be used for studying the uptake and reduction of a-lipoic acid by utilizing reducing capacity of human erythrocytes. The product can also be used for studying the activation mechanism of transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in the extracellular matrix by using Thioredoxin.


50 μg in glass bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase containing one FAD per subunit that reduces the active site disulfide in oxidized thioredoxin (Trx). The molecular weight of the isozymes from mammalian sources vary between 55-67 kDa as compared with 35 kDa in prokaryotes, plants or yeast. The substrate specificity of the mammalian enzyme is much broader than the prokaryotic enzyme reducing both mammalian and E. coli thioredoxins as well as non-disulfide substrates such selenite, lipoic acids, lipid hydroperoxides, and hydrogen peroxide.

Thioredoxin reductase from mammalian sources contains a selenocysteine residue that is essential for the activity of the enzyme. It is one of the antioxidant enzymes present in the mammalian cell together with catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, and helps in removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the cell. An example is the removal of excess nitric oxide (NO) by the formation of a complex with glutathione forming the S-nitroso-glutathione adduct (GS-NO). This can be cleaved directly by thioredoxin reductase. Hydrogen peroxide, another deleterious oxidant in the cell, is also reduced directly by mammalian TrxR.

Unit Definition

One unit will cause an increase in absorbance of 1.0 at 412 nm (when measured in a non-coupled assay containing DTNB [Sigma No. D8130] alone as substrate) per minute at pH 7.0 at 25 °C.

Physical form

Solution in 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 300 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, and 10% glycerol.

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

NONH for all modes of transport
WGK Germany 
Flash Point(F) 
Not applicable
Flash Point(C) 
Not applicable


Certificate of Analysis (COA)

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Certificate of Origin (COO)

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Protocols & Articles


Mitochondrial Stress and ROS

Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of lipotoxicity in both animal and human studies. Chronic oxidative stress is linked to insulin resistance in multiple tissues. Oxidative stress is ...
BioFiles 2011, 6.4, 22.
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