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621 matches found for reductions

Identification of Microorganisms Based on Color

For microbiologists the most fundamental stain was developed in 1884 by the Danish bacteriologist Hans Christian Gram. The Gram Stain allows the determination of morphology, dividing bacteria into two large groups. Bacteria that are stained purple are called “Grampositive”. Those that stain pink are...

Perfluorosulfonic Acid Membranes for Fuel Cell and Electrolyser Applications

Deborah Jones Institut Charles Gerhardt CNRS–University of Montpellier, 34090 Montpellier, France Email: Deborah.Jones@univ-montp2.fr From PEM Fuel Cells to PFSA Membranes PFSA Polymer Types Composition, Structure, and Synthesis Routes PFSA Ionomer Dispersions Conductivity and Water Uptake Membrane ...

Cellular Derived Blood Proteins and Enzymes

BioFiles 2006, 1.5, 4. Cell damage is induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are either free radicals, reactive anions containing oxygen atoms, or molecules containing oxygen atoms that can either produce free radicals or are chemically activated by them. Examples are hydroxyl radical, supero...

Perovskite-phase Metal Oxide Nanostructures: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications

Yuanbing Mao1, Hongjun Zhou1, and Stanislaus S. Wong1,2,* 1Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400 *Email: sswong@notes.cc.sunysb.edu 2Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 ...

Protection of samples and reliable results with BRAND matching sealing options

The demands for sealing options used in a laboratory are many and varied. Therefore BRAND offers different closure options usable in combination with BRANDplates®, PCR and Deep-well plates. Thus secure handling of your samples is possible for all applications or storage at a wide range of temperatur...

ABC Transporters and Cancer Drug Resistance

• • Download PDF • Role of ABC Transporters and Multi-Drug Resistance Reversal Using RNA Interference (RNAi)* Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice against many types of cancer. However, over time chemotherapeutic drugs can become less effective due to the development of resistance that involves a...

shRNA Frequently Asked Questions for Experimental Design

What controls do you recommend? Why doesn't the non-target control vector affect gene expression? How many cells can I infect with the amount of lentivirus provided? What is the method you recommend for screening the stable clones and is there a pair of primers that can be used for screening them by...

Comparing Quantitative Viability Bioassays: An Evaluation of MTT, alamarBlue™, and Guava® ViaCount® Methods

Krista McCutcheon and David Fei, Department of Analytical Sciences, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080-4990 Viability assays are crucial tools in the development of many drugs, particularly of cytotoxic agents. To best characterize potential compounds, viability assays must ideally be abl...

GenElute HP Endotoxin-Free Maxiprep Kit Article

By Dave Cutter and Goodarz Goodarzi Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, St. Louis, MO, USA View pdf version (209 KB) On this page: • Introduction • Materials and Methods • Results and Discussion • Conclusions • Acknowledgements • References • Ordering Information Introduction Plasmid DNA purification kits th...

Synonyms
Species Mouse (104022)

Direct Detect® Infrared Spectrometer for Total Protein Quantitation

How to use infrared spectroscopy to measure total protein concentration consistently (from one experiment to the next) and without knowing the sequence of the protein(s) being measured Accurately and consistently measuring the total protein concentration in a sample can generate more reliable immuno...

Tips for Optimizing Immunofluorescence Protocols to Get the Best Image

Related Links • Antibody Explorer: Search primary and secondary antibodies • Prestige Antibodies • Antibody Resource Center Uses for immunofluorescence (IF)—where an antibody is conjugated to a molecule that fluoresces when excited by lasers— include protein localization, confirmation of post-transl...

N-Heterocyclic Carbenes

Echavarren and co-workers have also demonstrated the utility of Au-NHCs in the reactions of 1,6-enynes. They determined that the outcome of the cyclization of 1,6-enyne 1 (Scheme 1) was dependent on the ligand coordinated to the metal. When 2 was used in combination with AgSbF6, the major product re...

Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) | Plant Profiler

Synonyms / Common Names / Related Terms Aspalathin, Aspalathus acuminatus, Aspalathus contaminata, Borbornia pinfolia, chrysoeryol, Fabaceae/Leguminosae (family), hyperoside, isoorientin, isoquercitrin, isovitexin, Kaffree tea, long life tea, luteolin, orientin, Psoralea linearis, quercetin, (R)-eri...

KAPA2G Fast PCR Kits FAQ

What are the recommended applications for KAPA2G Fast PCR Kits? • Standard, end-point PCR assays normally performed with wild-type Taq (or hot-start formulations thereof) – but completed in 20%–70% less time • High-throughput end-point PCR • End-point PCR for genetic testing or downstream Sanger seq...

Yew (Taxus sp) | Plant Profiler

Synonyms / Common Names / Related Terms Chinwood, common yew, Coniferae (family), docetaxel, Eibe (German), euar (Manx), European yew, hagina (Basque), Himalayan yew, idegran (Swedish), if (French), Irish yew, iubhar (Scottish Gaelic), iúr (Irish), ivenenn (Breton), marjakuusi (Finnish), Japanese ye...

Validation of RNAi Knockdown Using Multiple Reaction Monitoring and Protein-AQUA™

• • Download PDF • Beth K. Radwanski (pictured), Shantanu Roychowdhury, Henry Duewel Research and Development, Biotechnology Division, MiiliporeSigma The field of proteomics is continually looking for new ways to investigate protein dynamics within complex biological samples. Recently, many research...

Fast UHPLC Analysis for IdeS Fragments of SiLu™Lite SigmaMAb Universal Antibody Standard on BIOshell A400 Protein C4

Both top-down and bottom-up approaches to protein characterization have their advantages and limitations. One such limitation of the top-down approach, particularly with large proteins, is the need for state-of-the-art MS resolution, and interpretation of the complexity of the generated data. One po...

Frequently Asked Questions - radiello® Products

On this page: • General • Diffusive Bodies • RAD170 for Hydrogen Sulfide • RAD145 for BTEX/VOCs • RAD130 for BTEX/VOCs See Also: • What is passive diffusive sampling? • What is radiello®? • How to use radiello® • Applications What is the purpose of the recommended extra storage tubes? The extra stor...

Dry Powder Media Global Supply

SAFC Overview Why Choose SAFC? Media Supply Strategy DPM Manufacturing Capability and Capacity Packaging and Logistics Global Quality Systems Raw Materials Scale-up & Support Services Small Volume Custom Media – imMEDIAte Advantage™ Erythropoietin Hormone (Molecular model) Erythropoietin (EPO) is a ...

Alkali Metal Silica Gels from SiGNa

. Introduction . Bouveault-Blanc Reduction . Reductive Deprotection . Materials List Alkali metals have long been used in synthetic chemistry as reducing agents, but their pyrophoric nature has often prevented their use in larger-scale reactions. Alkali metals react violently with water, produce cop...

Silica-coated Gold Nanoparticles: Surface Chemistry, Properties, Benefits and Applications

In the past few decades, research and commercial use of gold nanoparticles has rapidly expanded into fields extending from biomedical engineering1 to photovoltaics.2 Most applications take advantage of the excellent optical properties of gold nanoparticles, which can be fine-tuned by varying their s...

(+)-Sparteine Surrogate

Dr. Daniel Weibel ChemFiles 2010, 10.1, 6. Until recently, sparteine, a widely used ligand in asymmetric synthesis1 was only commercially available in one enantiomeric form. O'Brien and his coworkers have designed several (+)-sparteine surrogates, which possess most of the threedimensional architect...

Examination of Efficacy, Specificity, and Efficiency of an shRNA Lentiviral Library

Betsy Boedeker,* Gregory A. Wemhoff, Andrea Spencer, Roger Chiu, Suzanne Miller, Henry George, and Edward J. Weinstein *Corresponding Author: Betsy Boedeker, Functional Genomics, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, Missouri, USA E-mail: bboedeker@sial.com The introduction of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in...

Alkali Silica Gels

Alkali metals have long been used in synthetic chemistry as reducing agents, but their pyrophoric nature has often prevented their use in larger-scale reactions. Alkali metals react violently with water, produce copious amounts of hydrogen gas that can ignite, and result in strongly alkaline solutio...

A Flexible Antibody Purification Process Based on ReadyToProcess Products with Capto Adhere

Extracted from Multimodal Chromatography (PDF), GE Healthcare, 2013 In this study, a series of experiments was undertaken to determine whether shorter time-to-clinic and cost savings could be achieved using ReadyToProcess products. The work involved scaling up a two-step chromatography purification ...

The Samplicity Filtration System Streamlines Chromatography Sample Preparation

Recent innovations that have accelerated chromatographic separation, such as ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography [UHPLC] and monolithic chromatography columns, are turning up the pressure on sample preparation processes to keep pace. It is important that analytical researchers choose a sampl...

Desalting Samples Using Mini Dialysis Kit

Related Protocols • Applying Equilibrated Immobiline DryStrip Gels to SDS Gels • Applying Equilibrated Immobiline® DryStrip Gels • Applying Immobiline® DryStrip Gels • Cleaning Up Samples using 2-D Clean-Up Kit • Components of Rehydration Solution • Components of Sample Preparation Solutions • Equil...

Pefabloc® SC PLUS Protocol

Product No. 11873601001 Binding to Proteins Pefabloc SC (like PMSF) belongs to the sulfonyl-type serine protease inhibitors. These inhibitors are known to covalently bind proteins when used at high concentrations, or during extended incubation times under alkaline conditions. This interaction advers...

GlycoProfile™ Labeling Kits: Useful Fluorescent Dyes for Enhanced Glycan Analysis

• • Download PDF • Glycan analysis has become an increasingly critical aspect of glycomics and proteomics, as the role of glycoproteins in cell signaling, cell adhesion, immune response, and disease states is emerging through ongoing research. In contrast to proteins and peptides, glycans do not abs...

Anaerobic Culture Methods with the Anaerocult® System

In many industries, including food, beverage or clinical microbiology, it is often necessary to cultivate anaerobes, microaerophiles and capnophiles such as Clostridium, Campylobacter or Lactobacillus. Our Anaerocult® systems produce the anaerobic, microaerobic and capneic growth conditions that are...