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黄芪(Astragalus membranaceous)


Astragalus (Astragalus membranaceus) Image

同义词/常用名/相关术语
黄芪皂苷I-IV,Astragalus gummiferaAstragalus lentiginosusAstragalus membranaceusAstragalus membranaceus japonica, Astragalus mollissimusAstragalus mongholicus,黄芪多糖,Astragalus propinquus,黄芪皂苷,Astragalus trigonus,astragel, baak kei, beg kei, bei qi, buck qi,毛蕊异黄酮,豆科植物(家族),芒硝,gaba-aminobytyric酸,山羊角,山羊刺,绿龙,龙牙胶,黄芪胶,黄芪胶,hoang ky, hog gum, Huang Qi, huang-chi, huangoi, huangqi, hwanggi,异黄酮,ji cao,豆科(家族),疯草,膜状紫云英,紫云英,紫云英,蒙古乳,蒙古紫云英,内蒙黄芪,ogi,芒柄花甙,ougi,膜吸虫,黄芪,spino santo,叙利亚黄蓍胶,tai shen, 黄蓍胶,trigonosides I-III, wong kei, yellow leader,黄野豌豆,Zhongfengnaomitong


作用机制

药理:

  • 成分:黄芪的活性成分已得到鉴定和分析,主要包括:多糖环阿屯糖苷级分(黄芪苷I-IV和三萜苷I-III)、四种主要异黄酮(芒柄花素,黄酮苷,毛蕊异黄酮及其糖苷)、皂苷、几种次要异黄酮和其他生物胺。25,26,27,28,29,8,30,31 黄芪还含有三萜类化合物。三萜类和皂苷类与类固醇激素前体具有结构相似性。
  • 抗糖尿病作用:动物和人体研究表明黄芪中的皂苷、异黄酮和多糖可以降低血糖。24,5,17,32,33,6,7基于实验研究,从黄芪中分离的皂苷可抑制蛋白酪氨酸磷酸化酶和蛋白激酶C活化,以及改善F-肌动蛋白重排,从而改变胰岛素敏感性。30,34 一些研究人员已经观察到体外葡萄糖细胞摄取的增加和脂肪细胞中蛋白质的合成增加。35,4黄芪中的异黄酮包括formononectin和鹰嘴豆素A是过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体(PPAR)和用于恢复血糖平衡的受体的有效激活剂。33
  • 抗炎症作用:体内抗炎活性可以通过抑制NF-κB的活化和mRNA的表达而介导。36,37
  • 抗微生物作用:黄芪多糖已被证明可在动物和人体内诱导内源性干扰素的产生并增强干扰素在病毒感染中的作用。38,9,22,2与未经黄芪预处理的动物相比,用黄芪预处理并暴露于Coxsachie B3、日本脑炎病毒、NDV和仙台病毒的小鼠具有显着更高的干扰素水平和巨噬细胞产量。39,21一些研究人员也报道说,作为对于黄芪的反应,病毒性心肌炎小鼠可表现出总体转归和心脏功能的改善,以及减少的心肌损伤、病毒载量和病毒复制。40,41,20,10,42另外也有报道表明黄芪多糖组分可刺激家禽细菌感染引起的IgA、IgM、IgG和抗原特异性脾细胞的产生。14,15,16相反,黄芪没有表现出抗HIV感染的体外细胞毒性或抗病毒活性。
  • 抗肿瘤特性/化疗副作用的改善:有体外证据表明黄芪通过刺激免疫系统可以增强疗效并减少化疗的不良反应。18,19,2Wei等人报道黄芪提取物显着增加了肺癌患者血液单核细胞的体外细胞因子分泌和基因表达。44也有研究显示黄芪提取物可在癌症和HIV患者的淋巴细胞中诱导LAK细胞活性,并刺激淋巴细胞对各种癌症患者中的诱变剂的胚细胞应答。45,46,47,48,49,50Lau等人也报道含有黄芪的草药组合可在体内抑制肿瘤生长,同时增强巨噬细胞和淋巴因子激活的杀伤细胞活性。51与用常规化疗治疗的大鼠相比,用含黄芪草药的治疗也可抑制大鼠的肿瘤生长和生存期延长。其他一些作者也报道了动物模型中白细胞介素-2(IL-2)产生的细胞毒性的增强45,52和诱变的减少53
  • 抗氧化和细胞保护特性:黄芪中的成分,特别是类黄酮,可发挥显着的细胞抗氧化作用,在预防心血管、肝、肺和肾脏的病变中似乎可发挥作用。54,55据报道,黄芪在体外可保护肾小管免受由高能冲击波56和辐射损伤所引起并由自由基所介导的损伤23。在健康和具有心血管疾病的动物模型心脏中,黄芪多糖和类黄酮组分被报道可清除线粒体自由基,防止脂质过氧化,保护线粒体免受异丙肾上腺素所诱导的损伤,预防糖尿病引起的心肌肥大,并减弱在充血性心力衰竭、糖尿病和实验性高血压中心脏结构和功能的病理性衰退。57,58,59,11,60,61已有研究表明黄芪多糖和类黄酮提取物在肾功能衰竭动物模型中保护肾脏的功能,以及保护因肝毒素而引起的肝功能。56,62,63,4,64,65,66类似的是,黄芪似乎可以保护细胞免受缺氧所带来的挑战69。黄芪甲苷IV被报道在失血性休克后可在体外保护人内皮细胞和肠上皮细胞免于再灌注损伤。67在短暂的局部性缺血后,培养的神经元68和小鼠大脑中也可观察到细胞对缺氧的保护作用69。黄芪苷IV还可抑制人类和动物疾病模型中的血小板聚集、纤溶酶原活化降低以及促进血纤维蛋白凝块的血管内溶解。18,70Xuan等人报道在一种耳毒性模型中黄芪可通过增强的DNA和RNA合成来保护细胞免受病理损伤。65在一项动物研究中,黄芪在实验性结肠炎中具有预防和治疗的潜力。1抗炎作用涉及抗氧化以及抑制结肠组织中的粘附分子合成。在一项体外研究中,黄芪和黄芪皂苷可通过一氧化氮调节途径有效地保护内皮依赖性舒张反应高半胱氨酸引起的急性损伤,而这其中抗氧化作用发挥了关键作用。31
  • 心血管作用:实验研究表明黄芪总苷会影响动物和人体在细胞、分离组织和全身水平的心血管功能。在孤立工作的大鼠心脏中,Wang等人报道黄芪提取物在较高剂量下可产生正性肌力作用,在较低剂量下产生负性肌力作用。52黄芪还可通过外周血管舒张作用在健康和高血压动物中产生降血压作用。71,72Chen等人报道黄芪可显着降低大鼠肾性高血压模型的动脉压,并改善了实验性充血性心力衰竭的心功能。73这种作用也被Ma等人所证实,他们报道黄芪可提高左心室的收缩功能,并在实验性诱导的慢性心力衰竭大鼠中增强因心房利钠肽而引起的强心、利尿和钠利尿反应。13另有体外证据表明黄芪还可以刺激缺血心肌66和羊膜74的血管生成和血运重建,促进血管内皮细胞增殖和DNA合成74。黄芪也被研究表明可增加红细胞中的钠泵活性。75
  • 激素/生殖作用:黄芪对各种激素系统均有显着影响。据报道,相对于对照,黄芪苷可显着增加大鼠垂体细胞培养物中的生长激素释放。12黄芪多糖成分还被证明可防止去卵巢大鼠的骨质流失。76 已有研究证明可在健康大鼠和男性中显著增强体外精子活力和存活力。77据报道,黄芪还能抑制由镉引起的精子生成和运动性衰退。25Liu等人最近报道了黄芪提取物显着增加了30名不育男性的体外精子活力和活力。78
  • 免疫系统作用:据报道,黄芪黄酮能增加豚鼠79和小鼠体内细胞介导的免疫力42。黄芪通过增加辅助性T细胞2型细胞因子的数量,增加肿瘤坏死因子和白细胞介素-6的水平来增强细胞介导的免疫。80,81,48,82,83,84已有研究表明其可刺激巨噬细胞和自然杀伤细胞的活性。根据动物研究,相对于对照,黄芪可增强针对对细菌感染的细胞和体液免疫应答。从患有下肢缺血的患者采集的骨髓血液和服用黄芪的患者的CD34 +细胞比例显着增加(p <0.05)。

药代动力学:

  • 黄芪苷似乎可通过与细胞膜受体直接相互作用发挥其免疫调节作用。Shao等人报道黄芪多糖组分可激活小鼠B细胞并通过细胞表面上的多糖组分和TLR4之间的直接相互作用刺激巨噬细胞产生。35Hao等人在大鼠内皮细胞中证实了黄芪多糖组分可通过促进细胞表面I-1的表达来刺激嗜中性粒细胞和内皮细胞之间的粘附。87这种作用被认为会促进伤口愈合中的炎症反应并可能是在几种组织中观察到的黄芪多糖的解毒和细胞保护作用的基础。已知黄芪多糖可增加各种组织中的RNA活性和蛋白质合成,并增加调节特定细胞代谢功能的酶的活性。2已有研究表明黄芪可调节鸟氨酸脱羧酶活性并增加2型糖尿病动物模型中肝脏和骨骼肌中胰岛素诱导的蛋白酪氨酸磷酸化酶活性。34
  • 黄芪单一化学成分的药代动力学参数数据不足。

参考文献

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