柠檬草(香茅)

Lemongrass (Cymbopogon) Image

同义词/常用名/相关术语

Abafado(葡萄牙语),α-柠檬醛,α-松油烯,Andropogon citratus,Andropogon nardus,bai mak nao(老挝语),β-柠檬醛(neral),β-月桂烯,bhustrina(印度),英国印度柠檬草,capim-cidrao,carene-2,caspase-3,Ceylon香茅草,柠檬醛,科钦柠檬香茅,Cymbopogon ambiguus, Cymbopogon citrates, Cymbopogon citratus DC, Cymbopogon excavatus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon goeringii, Cymbopogon martinii, Cymbopogon nardus, Cymbopogon nardus, Cymbopogon proximus, Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.), Cymbopogon winterianus, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt,东印度柠檬草,erba di limone (意大利语), essência de capim-limão (葡萄牙语),精油,法尼醇,发烧草,香叶醇,天竺葵草,醋酸香叶酯,禾本科(家族),危地马拉柠檬草,Halfa barr, herbe de citron (法语), hierba de limon (西班牙语), 爪哇香茅,柠檬草,柠檬草提取物(LGE),柠檬草有,柠檬草油(LGO),柠檬草茎,柠檬草药,Lg,马达加斯加柠檬草,梅利莎草,MYR,月桂烯,棕榈油,蒎烯,piperitone,檀香科(家族),邻苯二甲酸二甲酯,檀香酸,sera(印度,僧伽罗语),serai(马来语),sere(印度尼西亚语),sereh(印度尼西亚语),苏丹植物区系,takrai(泰语),萜烯beta-myrcene,西印度群岛柠檬草,Zitronengras (德语)。

 

注意:该综述不包含香茅油或石根。

 

作用机理

药理学:

  • 成分:柠檬草(Cymbopogon属)的许多不同物种的主要成分之一是柠檬醛(3,7-二甲基-2,6-辛二烯-1-醛)。17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25柠檬草有已被发现含有高达75-85%的柠檬醛17,26,21,同时也含有z-柠檬醛,冰片,草蒿,甲基丁香酚,乙酸香叶酯(乙酸3,7-二甲基-2,6-辛二烯-1-醇),香叶醇(某些物种比柠檬醛更高),β-月桂烯(MYR,7 甲基-3-亚甲基-1,6-辛二烯),柠檬烯,胡椒碱,香茅醛,care烯-2,α-萜品烯,蒎烯,法呢醇,邻二甲苯二酚和(+)。11,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,25,37,38,39,40,41,12,42,25来自根部的挥发油含有56.67%的长叶烯(V4)和20.03%的selina-6-en-4-ol。25特别是,一项针对鲁沙香茅的研究分离得到脂肪酸,普通甾醇和16-羟基十五碳-14(z)-烯酸。43
  • 镇痛作用:柠檬草在针对小鼠和大鼠的研究中展现出了具有镇痛的作用。44,45,46腹膜内和皮下注射柠檬草和月桂烯抑制乙酸引起的小鼠扭体反应。.45,46纳洛酮是一种类鸦片拮抗剂,可阻断小鼠的抗伤害作用,表明镇痛作用可能是内源性类鸦片类药物释放的结果。当通过注射角叉菜胶或前列腺素E2诱导痛觉过敏时,口服柠檬草的大鼠可引起剂量依赖性镇痛,但不影响由环AMP诱导的痛觉过敏,表明了作用的外周位点。44镇痛作用不会对大鼠重复注射造成耐受。柠檬草的镇痛成分被确定为月桂烯。44,45
  • 驱虫效果:在体外对鲁沙香茅的驱虫效果进行了测试。47鲁沙香茅中的一种成分香叶醇,被证明具有潜在的驱虫效果并具有66.7 ug/mL的ED50 值。
  • 抗菌效果:柠檬草在多项实验室研究中被证实具有抗菌效果48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70,可针对大肠杆菌、沙门氏菌以及肺炎克雷伯菌等发挥活性。52,53,54,61,65,67柠檬草还被证实可对常见的呼吸道病原体如流感嗜血杆菌、铜绿假单胞菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、化脓性链球菌和金黄色葡萄球菌等发挥作用。55,57,71,69一项研究表明,香茅草可完全抑制幽门螺杆菌的生长而不产生抗性,而在相同条件下克拉霉素已产生抗性。60据报道,柠檬草还可以提高苯氧乙醇抵抗大肠杆菌50,72和金黄色葡萄球菌63的活性。
  • 柠檬草还被发现可引起形态改变,抑制隔膜和球芽的形成,并产生“水泡”或中间体,从而形成异常形状的细胞并发生裂解。61还有研究发现柠檬香草可通过羧基荧光素的渗漏透化细胞质膜。59一项研究表明,柠檬草可能通过影响参与细胞质和细胞代谢的细菌靶标而具有抗菌活性。69
  • 柠檬草也被测试在进行SnCl(2)治疗时抗大肠杆菌野生型(AB 1157)菌株的能力。72在香茅草存在的情况下,SnCl(2)对大肠杆菌存活的影响降低。另一项实验室研究还发现,来自香茅草的精油具有广谱抑制特性,对13种大肠杆菌中的10种具有强活性(MIC在100和500mcg/mL之间):其中3种产肠毒素,2种致肠病,3种具有肠侵袭性,以及2种可产生志贺菌毒素。相似地,C. winterianus可显着抑制2种产肠毒素,1种肠致病性,1种具有肠侵袭性和1种可产生志贺毒素。50
  • 酢浆草饮料是一种玫瑰茄花萼水提取物、橙或菠萝汁和柠檬草的混合物,可对芽孢杆菌属、铜绿假单胞菌、乳酸杆菌属和棒状杆菌属具有抗菌作用,而单独的玫瑰茄花萼水提取物并不具备这些效果。73
  • 抗癌效果:香茅在沙门氏菌突变试验中被发现具有抗致突变特性。74从香茅中提取的柠檬醛可在多项造血系统癌细胞系中诱导死亡性细胞凋亡、DNA断裂以及caspase-3催化活性。20在诱导DNA加合物和异常隐窝灶之前,对大鼠施用柠檬草提取物75,并证实在结肠癌中可显著抑制DNA加合物和异常隐窝的形成。然而,在一项已诱导了肝癌的大鼠研究中,柠檬草提取物仅对肝癌的早期具有作用。76柠檬草的另一种成分柠檬烯也被用于抗肿瘤活性的检测中。
  • 抗真菌作用:柠檬草在实验室研究中被证实具有抗真菌活性77,17,78,79,80,81,82,83,84,85,86,87,88,89,90,91,92,93,94,95,96,97,98,99,100,101,102,103,104,105,106,107
  • 其中的一些真菌包括各种曲霉菌种和白色念珠菌。在一项研究中,柠檬草油能够在7至12天内治疗豚鼠的实验性癣。88该油还被证明可有效防止真菌在食物上生长。针对柠檬草油所具有抗真菌作用机制具有多种不同假设。它对黑曲霉中的菌丝生长、孢子形成以及质膜破裂和线粒体结构解体被证实具有抑制作用。80,85,96香茅草还会导致酵母细胞发生K +渗漏,以及使得酵母细胞膜的组成发生变化。
  • 抗炎症效果:在一项小鼠的药理学研究中,通过每只受试者腹膜内注入5uL的柠檬草油以验证其抗炎特性。108柠檬草油已被证实可通过抑制嗜中性粒细胞积聚来抑制白细胞向腹腔中的招募。在另一项研究中,0.0125至0.1%柠檬草油在体外可抑制肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)引起的嗜中性粒细胞活化。17
  • 抗疟疾效果:在小鼠中的研究表明柠檬草具有抵抗疟原虫的效果。109,4,110一项研究表明对小鼠每天使用500mg/kg的柠檬草可引起高达86.6%的反应而同时喹啉在每天10mg/kg时可起到100%的效果。另一项小鼠中的研究证实了Cymbopogon giganteus 可对喹啉抵抗的疟疾起到作用。109
  • 抗突变效果:柠檬草的成分已针对环磷酰胺、丝裂霉素C和氯化镍引起的诱变作用进行了抵抗测试。111,112一项在小鼠中的研究表明,柠檬醛可防止因环磷酰胺、丝裂霉素C和氯化镍而引起的核损伤。112
  • 抗氧化效果:柠檬草的抗氧化功能也被评估过。113,114,115,116柠檬草油的主要成分柠檬醛,以60mg/kg的量给予大鼠口服一周。116随后,通过腹腔注射氯化镍这种常见的诱变剂以引起核损伤。柠檬醛显著的抑制了因镍引起的微核形成,而同时其抗氧化活性也在体外得到了测试。柠檬醛的超氧清除活性被观察到具有19ug/mL的EC50值,表明柠檬醛具有针对溴化镍的抗畸变作用。
  • 还使用大鼠肝脏上皮细胞系对柠檬醛对谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GST)的诱导活性进行了测试,而GST可使多环芳烃解毒。115柠檬醛可剂量和时间依赖性的诱导GST活性。谷胱甘肽(GSH)和蛋白质巯基还可特异性地被异构体香叶醛激活。作者认为这项研究提示了柠檬醛可诱导GST的抗氧化作用。在另一项研究中,Cymbopogon citratus显示出了清除自由基的作用,并在另一项研究中对γ-射线具有抵抗作用,这再次提示了其自由基清除的机理。113,114
  • 抗血小板活性Cymbopogon citratus精油在豚鼠和大鼠的血浆中被证实具有抗血小板活性。117
  • 抗病毒效果:柠檬草油在体外显示出具有抗单纯疱疹病毒1型(HSV-1)的抗病毒活性。118浓度为0.1%的柠檬草油与病毒粒子在4℃直接相互作用24小时,可完全抑制病毒的复制。
  • 心脏影响:Cymbopogon citratus 水提取物可降低心率但不改变雄性大鼠离体心脏的收缩力。14Cymbopogon goeringii挥发油可抑制离体豚鼠乳头肌和心房的收缩并延长功能不应期,表明该物种的抗心律失常作用。15柠檬草油还表现出对分离的、灌注的肠系膜动脉制剂的血管舒张作用,似乎是由不依赖于一氧化氮和非类清蛋白的机制所介导。13,16当向大鼠静脉内给药时,Cymbopogon citratus显示出一些与剂量相关的降血压作用。当大鼠通过口服用药时,还表现出一些弱利尿和抗炎作用。
  • 中枢神经系统影响:对大鼠口服高达相当于人剂量208倍的柠檬草以及高达200mg/kg的柠檬醛,结果显示其对中枢神经系统(CNS)并不存在作为抑制剂、催眠药、精神安定药、抗惊厥药或抗焦虑药的作用。6腹膜注射对大鼠CNS几乎没有影响。在另一项研究中,大鼠和小鼠以1g/kg的量口服了含在玉米油中的柠檬香草成分β-月桂烯27。该研究也表明柠檬草对中枢神经系统不存在作用。同时也有其他一些研究对此影响也进行了研究。119,120
  • 降血糖作用:有两项在四氧嘧啶诱导的糖尿病大鼠中进行的研究确定了柠檬草(Cymbopogon proximus)的降血糖特性。两项研究均显示,柠檬草在大鼠的四周治疗中可使葡萄糖水平恢复正常。在一项研究中,四氧嘧啶诱导的糖尿病大鼠每天按每100g体重1.5mL的量口服柠檬草水悬浮液4周。9柠檬草治疗可恢复四氧嘧啶诱导的糖尿病大鼠的葡萄糖、尿素、肌酐、胆红素、总蛋白和白蛋白,降低谷草转氨酶(AST)、丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT)和乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)。在另一项研究中,四氧嘧啶诱导的糖尿病大鼠每天口服柠檬草,四周后使得升高的血糖恢复到了正常水平。10柠檬草处理也降低了细胞色素P450s及其相关的酶活性,如芳烃(苯并(a)芘)羟化酶(AHH)、N-亚硝基二甲胺N-脱甲基酶I(NDMA-dI)、NADPH-细胞色素C还原酶、谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GST)和谷胱甘肽(GSH)。而这些酶都是在四氧嘧啶诱导的糖尿病大鼠中有所增加。
  • 杀虫剂和驱虫效果:柠檬草已被证实具有驱虫效果。3,121,122,123,124,125,126多项研究表明柠檬草油在两到三个小时的驱虫过程中具有50-95%的有效性。3,122,123,126柠檬草也被证明可以用于杀虫。2,127,128,129,35,36,130,131,132,133,134研究表明柠檬草油是一种可应对多种昆虫如尘螨、白蚁和蜱虫的有效杀虫剂。
  • 其他:柠檬草经测试以确定其对于5-HT释放以及用于头痛治疗的影响。Cymbopogon ambiguus可抑制腺苷酸二磷酸(ADP)介导的血小板5-HT在56-98%水平的释放,并且并不是因为蛋白结合鞣的非特异性影响。这种抑制是剂量依赖性的,并具有0.758mg/mL的IC50值。C. ambiguus 的二氯甲烷(DCM)提取物还可引起由肾上腺素、花生四烯酸介导的血小板激活的显著抑制,而由胶原介导的抑制会更明显。作者表示这些结果表明这个抑制作用可能是发生在花生四烯酸途径内并存在有环氧合酶抑制剂。
  • 一项测试评估了黄曲霉对黄曲霉毒素B(1) (AFB(1))暴露后大鼠血清黄曲霉毒素-白蛋白(AF-白蛋白)加合物水平的影响。135 大鼠每日经5g/kg的Cymbopogon citratus提取物处理一周后,开始经受AFB(1)的暴露。相对于对照组,经Cymbopogon citratus提取物处理的大鼠并没有出现显著的生物标志物水平差异。
  • 一项体外试验发现,Cymbopogon densiflorus 具有显着的抗脱细胞活性(抗镰状细胞性贫血),而这支持了刚果治疗师对于这种草药的传统使用。
  • 一项体外研究发现,Cymbopogon citratus的乙醇提取物对乙酰胆碱酯酶(AChE)、酰胆碱酯酶(BChE)和脂氧合酶(LO)具有酶抑制能力(≥50%)。137
  • 柠檬草植物提取物与氯代氯酸根离子反应后,可产生高比例的纳米技术中使用的薄而扁平的单晶金纳米三角。

 

药效动力学:

  • 在雄性大鼠中研究了柠檬草油的主要成分柠檬醛(高达80%的柠檬草油成分)的尿代谢物。按500mg/kg的量单次口服柠檬醛24小时后对尿液进行收集。结果发现其在尿中的消除速度很快,在24小时内约有50%的量被排出。柠檬醛被迅速代谢并作为代谢物被排出体外。代谢产物是胆汁葡萄糖醛酸苷和几种酸。这些被分离出来的代谢产物有:3-羟基-3,7-二甲基-6-辛烯二酸;3,8-二羟基-3,7-二甲基-6-辛烯酸;3,9-二羟基-3,7-二甲基-6-辛烯酸;E-和Z-3,7-二甲基-2,6-辛二烯二酸;3,7-二甲基-6-辛烯二酸以及E-3,7-二甲基-2,6-辛二烯酸。柠檬醛的尿代谢物似乎是由代谢途径产生的,而不是对双键的亲核加成。

 

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