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人参


Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Image

别名/公用名/相关词条

人参(西洋参,亚洲人参,中国人参,高丽红参,Panax ginseng:人参属,包括P. ginsengC.C. Meyer 和P. quinquefoliusL.,不包括Eleutherococcus senticosus),炔(属)醇,酸性多糖,针灸,苷元,Allheilkraut,花旗参(AG),野生西洋参,五加科,亚洲人参,人参,chikusetsaponin-L8,竹节人参,选择ninjin(日语),CPPQ(从Panax quinquefolius提取的粗多糖),CVT-E002,dae-jo-hwan (DJW),三叶参,五指,五叶人参,G115®,酸性多糖,酸性多糖PA(吞噬作用激活多糖),人参酸性多糖,人参根,人参皂苷,人参四胜肽,Ginsengwurzel(德语),人参皂苷,人参皂苷(Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, and Rg1),人参皂苷化合物 (shen-fu),GTTC,白山,hakushan,higeninjin,hongshen,花旗参, hungseng, hungsheng, hunseng, insam, jenseng, jenshen, jinpi, kao-li-seng,高丽参,高丽红参(KRG),Kraftwurze(德语),人形根, 记忆增强剂,minjin, nhan sam, ninjin, ninzin, niuhan,北美人参,三七皂苷,齐墩果酸,东方人参,otane ninjin, panax de chine, Panax ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A Meyer, Panax notoginseng, Panax, psuedoginseng,Panax quinquefolium(常见误拼写),Panax spp., Panax trifolius L., Panax vietamensis (越南人参), 人参二醇,人参多糖,人参三醇,人参环氧炔醇,人参醇,人参炔三醇,pannag,聚乙炔类化合物,聚-葡萄糖苷-喃糖基-多糖,原人参二醇皂苷,乙酸异丁酯,racine de ginseng(法语),红参, renshen, sang, sanchi ginseng, san-pi, schinsent, sei yang sam, 参, 山参, shen-fu, shenghaishen, shenlu, 生晒参, 生晒山参, siyojin, 抗压,太阳参, t'ang-sne, 鞑靼根, tienchi ginseng, to-kai-san, 三萜, 真参, tyosenninzin, 香草酸, 越南人参,西方人参, 西方海参, 白参, 野生人参, 木生(仿野生栽培) 人参根, 西参, 西洋参, yakuyo ninjin, yakuyo ninzin, 洋参, yeh-shan-seng, 园参, yuansheng, zhuzishen.

西伯利亚人参 (Eleutherococcus senticosus) 别名刺五加,刺五加, ciwujia,魔鬼灌木,魔鬼灌木,eleuthera, eleuthero, eleuthero人参,五加属,eleutherococci radix, Eleutherococcus, Eleutherococcus senticosus,植物雌激素,shigoka,勿碰我,野山椒,五加, 五加皮,乌苏里江,乌苏里刺山椒灌木
西洋参 (Panax quinquefolius L.) 别名:西洋参,美洲人参, amerikanischer Ginseng (德语),amerikkalainen ginseng, Anchi ginseng,Aralia quinquefolia Decne. & Planch (植物学名),五加科(科名),加拿大人参,CVT-E 002,五指,五叶人参,嘎兰特区恩,人参,ginseng d'Amérique (法语),人参皂苷聚-葡萄糖苷-喃糖基-多糖,人形根,人体健康,北美人参,西方人参, 安大略人参, Panax quincefolium, Panax, quinquefolium,红莓,redberry, sang, shang (TCM),鞑靼根,西方人参,美洲野山参,威斯康辛人参,西洋参 (TCM, 中文)
Panax ginseng 别名:楤木(植物学别名),楤木属人参,五加科(科),亚洲人参,人参,中国人参,G115®,Gincosan,Ginsai®,ginseng asiatique,ginseng radix,人参根,ginsengjuuri,guigai,日本人参,jintsam,朝鲜人参,高丽人参,朝鲜红参,高丽红参,苦黄参麦注射(KHSM),ninjin,东方人参,Panax,Panax ginsengPanax ginseng C. Meyer,Panax schinseng,Panax schinseng Nees,Panax spp.,radix ginseng rubra,红参,人参(TCM),renshen (TCM),Renxian,参,schinsent, seng, shen, 生麦,生脉成骨胶囊,生脉注射(SI),生脉散(SMS),shengmai-san, shengmaisan,生脉饮,生脉活血饮(SMHXD),参麦注射(SMI),白参

: :这篇综述聚焦于Panax ginseng种,而不是Eleutherococcus senticosus,也被称为西伯利亚人参。在俄罗斯,西伯利亚人参作为人参的低价替代物被推广,因为他们相信两者有相同功效。然而,西伯利亚人参不含有Panax spp具有的人参总皂甙。其他物种也可能被认为是人参,但是他们或者来自不同科或属,比如Eleutherococcus senticosus(西伯利亚人参),Pseudostellaria heterophylla(太子参),Angelica sinensis(雌性人参,dong quai),Withania somnifera(印第安人参,ashwagandha),Pfaffia paniculata(巴西人参),Lepidium meyenii(玛咖,maca),Gynostemma pentaphyllum (南参或绞股蓝)。 西伯利亚人参不包含在此篇综述中。

 

Panax ginseng生物活性产物

活性机理

药理学:

  • 组成: 人参最主要的活性成分是多种甾体皂苷, 也被称为人参皂苷125,126,127, 具体作用机理还不得而知。人参皂苷具有生理调节作用,能够被消化道微生物转化为具有药理活性的物质(化合物 K 或者 M4) 128 化合物K是原人参二醇皂苷, 而M4是原人参皂苷衍生物. 最近有报道显示人参皂苷可以作为某些代谢的药物前体,人参皂苷Rg2调节人体5-羟色胺3A受体通道活性129。人参植物的每一个部分都有药理活性,但根部是最常被使用的,含有最高的人参皂苷。130 一般来说,Panax notoginseng 和 Panax quinquefolius中的人参皂苷含量要比 Panax ginseng高。131 但是有争议的是,有些研究者认为 Panax ginseng 含有更高的皂苷,因此被认为比西洋参效用更大。一项研究发现东方红参的人参皂苷含量很低79。另一项研究从人参补充剂的商业样本中提取到了甲基黄嘌呤(咖啡因,茶碱,可可碱和其他物质)132
  • 人参成分包括20(S)-人参皂苷Rg3, 炔(属)醇 ,苷元,alpha-麦芽糖基-beta-D-呋喃果糖苷,铝,抗氧化剂,钙,chikusetsaponin-L8,柠檬醛,钴,铜,达玛烷型四环三萜皂苷,基本氨基酸(尤其是精氨酸,脂肪酸,乙酸异丁酯,人参酸性多糖,人参皂苷(比如 F1, F2, F3, R0, Ra1, Ra2, Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Rd2, Re, Rf, Rg1, Rg2, Rg3, Rh1, Rh2, Rh3,和Rs4),三七皂苷, 人参皂苷-Ia, 人参皂苷-Ra1, 人参皂苷-Re, 人参皂苷-Rg2 (20R), 人参皂苷-Rh1 (20R), 人参皂苷-Rh1 (20S), 人参皂苷-Rs3, 铁, 柠檬油精, 锰, 镁, 钼, 三七人参皂苷-R4,齐墩果酸, 人参萜二醇,人参多糖,人参三醇,人参皂苷, 人参环氧炔醇,人参炔三醇, 肽葡聚糖, 磷, 多炔, 多炔化合物,聚-葡萄糖苷-喃糖基-多糖, 多糖, 钾, 原人参三醇,原人参二醇,人参皂苷,乙酸异丁酯,皂苷,钠,萜品醇,三萜,钒,维生素(尤其是抗坏血酸维生素C和维生素),芳香油 (b-榄香烯,人参环氧炔醇,人参炔三醇,炔醇和炔三醇)以及锌。49,14,133,134,135,136,137,138,139
  • 多种化学分析发现,参麦含有高达39种人参皂苷和七种ophioponins。16,17
  • Panax ginsengPanax ginseng相比西洋参有更高的Rg1,而西洋参含有更多的Rb1。Rg1和Rb1有相反的药理作用。Rg1被认为是轻微的中枢神经系统刺激物(激活脑活动),升血压,抗疲劳剂,促进代谢(促进脱氧核糖核酸(DNA),蛋白质和脂质的合成),促进精神敏锐,和智力增强剂。
  • 西洋参 (Panax quinquefolius):这一草本植物的组分是聚-葡萄糖苷-喃糖基-多糖。52西洋参一般含有更高的人参皂苷Rb1,没有人参皂苷Rf。人参皂苷Rb1能防止新血管的生成,抑制中枢神经系统(抗惊厥,止痛,镇定),降血压,抗压(保护消化道免于溃疡),抗压(抑制条件性回避反应),削弱抗炎效果,退热,辅助小肠活动,增加肝脏胆固醇合成。西洋参被认为有较高的酸性的或者丙二酰人参皂苷140。当西洋参在32-44°C干燥后,丙二醇和中性人参皂苷含量降低141
  • 酒精清除效果:人参通过加强酒精脱氢酶活性,促进清除人体内30-50%的酒精111
  • 止痛效果: 在两阶段福尔马林疼痛实验中,给23只ICR老鼠口服了四天从西洋参根部(Cold-fX®)提取的聚-葡萄糖苷-喃糖基-多糖。相比起喂食水安慰剂的老鼠,这些ICR老鼠明显在第二阶段更少地舔或咬他们受伤的爪子39。在第一阶段,两组老鼠没有区别。在动物实验中,人参总皂苷拮抗吗啡引起的镇痛,吗啡镇痛抑制身体对疼痛的耐受力,引起吗啡的物理依赖104。在小鼠中,人参能够阻止对类罂粟碱和精神兴奋剂的耐受形成115,44。在下腔、腹膜或侧脑室注射人参皂苷能够引起无痛,抵抗辣椒素引起的疼痛142
  • 生血管效应:在体内和体外实验中,Rg1和Re,两种从Panax ginseng中提取的化合物,能够显著增强人体脐静脉内皮细胞的繁殖,迁移,形成细胞毛细血管网,增加新毛细血管密度143,33。另外,参麦可能还会影响血管生成。在体外实验中,经过低剂量的生脉成骨胶囊处理的兔子血清,显著刺激了ECV304人体脐带细胞血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)的分泌144。尽管,Panax ginseng传统上被用来治疗癌症,并被认为有抑制血管生成的作用31
  • 血管紧张素转化酶(ACE)效应:在一体外实验中,Panax ginseng提取物抑制了血管紧张素转化酶(ACE)活性,但没有影响一氧化氮的生成110
  • 抗衰老作用:Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer和杜仲叶合用能够刺激胶原合成,防止随着年龄增长出现的蛋白质代谢降低。145
  • 抗过敏作用:在实验室研究中,人参皂苷Rh2通过抑制一氧化氮(NO)和PGE2的生成,展现出由细胞膜稳定活性和抗炎症活性介导的抗过敏活性102
  • 止喘效果:体外研究表面人参皂苷通过刺激气管上皮细胞一氧化氮(NO)形成和环磷酸鸟苷(GMP)合成,舒张人体支气管平滑肌13
  • 抗癌效果:人参的抗肿瘤效果在体内体外实验146147,148,149,30,150,151,152,153,154,155,和流行病学研究29中都得到了证实。抗癌效果的天然机制尚不清晰,但我们目前知道人参皂苷Rg3,Rg5和Rh2能够单独或协同起效,是抑制肿瘤的活性成分156
  • 在流行病学研究中,人参消费者患大多数癌症的危险性比非消费者要低157,158,159,160。初步资料显示,人参加化疗的病人症状有改善(更少并发症,胃口变好,体重增加),并且医学指标也有改善(血红蛋白,免疫蛋白和淋巴细胞水平)161。不过这一点还未得到主流参考文献证明。
  • 皂苷,多糖和多炔是可能的有效成分,协同影响肿瘤进展162,是免疫调节剂163。人参成分被证明抑制小鼠皮肤肿瘤坏死因子的产生36,在动物模型中,抑制肿瘤细胞的生长和繁殖98,抑制细胞繁殖促分化,刺激c-fos的表达,刺激细胞内cAMP,p21和p53的表达,增强丝裂霉素C积累,caspase-1,caspase-3活性, Bax上调,和干扰素水平。在体外降低细胞周期蛋白D,抑制细胞周期蛋白/Cdk聚合物激酶活性,pRb磷酸化和E2F的释放164,9,114.  另一项实验表明(20S)Rg3通过Akt依赖抑制反应阻止上皮细胞凋亡。Akt反应抑制线粒体凋亡信号通路32。其他肿瘤细胞过程也被人参组分或是肠道菌群代谢物干扰99,165
  • Panax quinquefolius L.和乳腺癌治疗剂(环磷酰胺、阿霉素、氟尿嘧啶、甲氨蝶呤)共同使用能协同抑制肿瘤细胞生长166 。三醇皂苷和高丽红参中的多糖能共同作用,在小鼠肿瘤形成和生长过程中,为小鼠提供保护167
  • 相关物种细胞系研究显示,含有皂苷(chikusetsusaponins IV, IVa, V, polysciasaponin P5)的Panax japonicus能够通过Fas/FasL通路,减轻皮肤中由于过度细胞凋亡引起的皮肤症状168
  • 生脉注射对于小鼠也有抗肿瘤效果169。抑制机制可能与IL-2受体水平有关170
  • 人参的肿瘤预防效果已经在多篇综述中讨论过171,162
  • 止吐作用:一项体外实验表明人参皂苷,尤其是人参三醇皂苷部分,对于重组体5-羟色胺3A型受体有较大抑制作用,暗示了某些类型的人参皂皂苷可能对于与5-羟色胺3A型受体相关的恶心和呕吐有阻抗作用12。一项使用了高丽红参总提取液的动物实验支持了人参的止吐效果28
  • 抗炎症效果Panax ginseng减轻小鼠受伤和炎症的过程和在人体中是相同。口服Panax ginseng药剂后,肌酸激酶,β-葡糖醛酸酶和6-磷酸葡萄糖脱氢酶(G6PDH)水平降低172。在临床试验中,对于患有梗阻性黄疸的病人,丹参和生脉共用降低了血浆中LPs,ET,TNF-alpha,IL-6和IL-8的术后水平,抑制了炎症中间物,增强了血液流动性42。参麦注射还显著降低了TNF-alpha mRNA在腹膜巨噬细胞中的表达173
  • 抗菌作用:在动物实验中,预先服用了人参的小鼠可免于由Staphylococcus aureus引起的脓毒病。这可能是由于人参成分早期抑制了急性炎症反应而后又增强了巨噬细胞活174。十全大补汤,是日本传统药物中含有人参成分的,能够在Candida albicans感染小鼠中,增强其巨噬细胞抗念珠菌活性。175 Belogortseva et al. 发现人参根部的多糖成分能够抑制Helicobacter pylori血凝反应。176 服用人参的病人清除肺部Pseudomonas aeruginosa的能力增强了 (p<0.04), 降低了肺部脓肿发生率(p<0.01), 降低了肺部病灶肥大细胞数量(p<0.005)。34
  • 抗氧化作用:Panax ginseng 和Panax quinquefolius具有抗氧化活性。177,19 这可能是由于人参皂苷178成分和皂苷在体外实验中能减少低浓度脂蛋白的氧化122179。另外,Panax ginseng提取物在体外脑组织中还有抗氧化活性180,这一特性在人参被加热后得到了加强36。苯甲酸衍生物,水杨酸和香草酸在分析中也展现出抗氧化活性181。所以毫不奇怪,参麦(人参,五味子果实,麦冬)同样在体外,小鼠和心脏病患者身上展现出抗氧化性。46182 Lee et al.发现吸烟者服用人参后,氧化脱氧核苷酸(DNA)损伤和蛋白质氧化程度减轻183。起到这一效果的化合物尚不明晰。
  • 抗血小板凝聚效果: 人参是血小板激活因子的阻抗剂84,并且受剂量影响也会阻抗凝血酶87,其中起到主要作用的可能是人参皂苷Rg1 7或人参醇89。人参阻碍血小板凝聚调节cGMP和凝血噁烷A2水平。人参的血小板凝聚抑制效果可能影响它对糖尿病肾病治疗效果。81除了抑制兔子血小板凝结,人参化合物人参醇抑制了凝血噁烷的形成和释放,而人参皂苷R0, Rg1,和Rg2只抑制释放。88进一步给小鼠饮食补充提取自人参的亲脂性组分能起到抗血栓形成的作用。86
  • 在体外,三七皂苷R1能够促进纤溶酶反应85,R0和Rg1降低血纤维蛋白生成,激活血纤维蛋白拮抗酶90
  • 另一方面,在出血性老鼠模型中,Panax notoginseng(粉末和总提取物)有止血作用。82 朝鲜草药混合药剂dae-jo-hwan,也包含人参,表现了相似的抗血栓形成特性。11Panax quinquefolius在体外也展现出抗血栓形成特性,作用机理可能是由于一氧化氮(NO)释放。83然而,华法令和人参共用并不影响S-华法令或是R-华法令的药代动力学和药效特性。184同样地,在小规模随机控制实验中,对于无华法令使用史的缺血性中风病人,Panax ginseng和华法令共服并没有影响华法令的药理作用。105
  • 抗溃疡效果:在给小鼠注射了坏死性试剂(HCl-乙醇,乙醇)和幽门结孔后,人参叶子中的多糖成分能够防止消化道溃疡发生。185 不仅口服有效,全身用药也有效,说明这一作用没有区域性。对老鼠被注射的组织进行培养,人工栽培的人参降低了胃液分泌和酸的产量。186然而,胃蛋白酶的活性没有受影响。栽培的人参阻抗了组胺引起的酸分泌。
  • 抗病毒作用:一些研究表明人参在人体和动物体内都有抗病毒作用。当和6-MFA,一种干扰素诱导抗病毒剂一起使用后,人参能保护82-100%的小鼠免于西门利克森林病毒的感染。187 人参还能和扎那米韦和奥司他韦起到相似效果,减轻感冒。
  • 催情作用:传统上,人参被用作催情并且一些研究也支持了这个观点。人参加强了阴茎海绵体内皮细胞一氧化氮的合成,人参皂苷增强了乙酰胆碱诱导和跨壁神经刺激-激活松弛,这与组织增加的环磷酸鸟苷有关。38
  • 心血管作用:人参皂苷引起的平滑肌松弛57,61,62,63也许能够解释其对冠心病症状减轻效果,这些效果包括心电图(ECG)改变,比如极化干扰。188. Ca2+可能在人参对于心血管作用中起到了重要效果。189,62 人参皂苷Rb1和Rg1有血管舒张作用,可能是由一氧化氮释放介导。61 肺部,心脏,肾和海绵体增强的一氧化氮合成导致了血管舒张。3 Panax notoginseng 总皂苷能够增强钙离子泵活性,其次增强心肌松弛,防止细胞内钙过量。190
  • 在服用了益气活血饮(包括人参,黄芪,当归)后,小鼠左心室功能增强。191人参皂苷通过高胆固醇血清抑制了动脉血管平滑肌细胞的繁殖。192服用人参的老鼠比起对照组更不容易得心律失常。193人参和西洋参都能增强脉搏的谐波傅里叶分量。58 Rb1降低了猪心脏收缩力度但没有影响到动作电位或是振幅。194 Rg 1 和Re在狗身上也有血管扩张功能,Rc和Rb2有非常微弱的血管扩张功能而Rb1没有。57 在狗身上,人参提取液显著降低了心脏排血量,心缩排量,中心静脉压力,并且显著增加了总外周阻力。60 尽管红参和白参对心血管系统都有相似的效果,红参的效果要更强一些。195
  • 在充血性心力衰竭病人身上注射生脉(人参,五味子果实,麦冬)降低了血清中DR4和DR5水平,他们是可溶肿瘤坏死因子相关凋亡激活配体(TRAIL)的死亡受体。196 生脉粉末还能增强冠心病左心房功能。197,198 在另一起临床案例中,参麦注射液增加了心房排血量97 另外,小鼠参麦注射在全身炎症反应综合症(SIRS)中起到了保护作用,这可能与降低了小鼠脂多糖和肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)alpha分泌有关。35
  • 体外试验表明人参皂苷Re通过一氧化氮(NO)来增强对心脏保护。尤其是通过直接S-亚硝基化通道蛋白增加K+离子流,并且通过cGMP依赖途径抑制L型Ca2+流。199
  • 细胞效果:人参根部多糖有网状内皮系统激活特性。200 根据实验证明,各种人参皂苷对于细胞内间隙连接介导的细胞交流(GJIC),包括诱导GJIC还原和抑制GJIC还原有不同的作用。这些作用是由蛋白酪氨酸磷酸酶抑制剂钒酸盐或白细胞介素1alpha(IL-1alpha)介导14 Panax ginseng会促进肺部,心脏,肾和海绵体内皮细胞一氧化氮的合成。73人参皂苷Rh2和Rh3能诱导HL-60细胞形成粒性白细胞。201Rh2调节蛋白激酶C同种型水平导致HL-60细胞分化。
  • 脑电效果:健康志愿者的脑电图显示Panax ginseng能直接调节脑电活动21
  • 胆固醇作用:人参能够降脂。在动物和高血脂人群中,口服人参减少了血浆中的总胆固醇,甘油三酸酯,低密度胆固醇和非必需脂肪酸,并且增加了高密度脂蛋白91,202。这可能是由于人参成分激活胆固醇酶203。 另一向研究发现,相比对照,人参能降低肥胖小鼠血液中甘油三酸酯水平。204 尽管人参Re能降低胆固醇,Rb1事实上会提高它。203 胆固醇酯转移蛋白抑制剂抑制人体胆固醇转移蛋白,IC50值是20-35mg/mL205。在2型糖尿病中,没有发现人参对血浆脂类有作用。76
  • 对循环系统作用:参附注射液(人参和乌头根)增强了小鼠心房微动脉直径,毛细血管密度和血流速度,效果比参麦注射强。206
  • CNS/神经/认知作用:人参提取物在动物模型上对CNS有刺激作用207,并且所有研究都表明人参皂苷能够缓解疲劳57。人参皂苷Rb1有增强记忆的作用,它通过减少β-淀粉样蛋白多肽起效,β-淀粉样蛋白多肽在记忆降低中有重要作用208, 但是Rb1和Rg1都不能逆转β-淀粉样蛋白诱导的细胞死亡209。 Rb1和Rg1促进神经生长,逆转1-甲基4-苯基1,2,3,6-四氢吡啶诱导的细胞死亡。209 Panax ginseng提取物还能改善东莨菪碱注射诱导的健忘210,211在小鼠身上,人参显示出抗焦虑特性。212 同样在小鼠身上,人参能够拮抗吗啡的急性药理作用213并且阻止吗啡耐药性的发展44。在小鼠中人参皂苷Rb1和Rg1 能抑制惊厥,条件性位置偏爱,突触后多巴胺受体过敏感。116 这些发现表明人参也许可以用于药物依赖治疗。115
  • 摄入了Panax ginseng根部,小鼠大脑皮层中多巴胺和去甲肾上腺素以及纹状体,小脑中大脑皮质和血清素代谢被增强。214纹状体中多巴胺和下丘脑和中脑中的血清素被抑制。 当小鼠服用人参根部七周后,所有大脑区域的多巴胺,去甲肾上腺素和血清素代谢都被抑制了,只有小脑的血清素代谢增强。人参提取物还抑制了伽玛氨酪酸(GABA),谷酰胺,多巴胺,去甲肾上腺素,血清素在小鼠脑突触体的摄取。215 体外实验表明人参皂苷调控爪蟾卵母细胞GABA(A)受体表达,这一调控可能是Panax ginseng药理机制之一。216 每100mg/kg人参总皂苷降低41%的由纹状体内尼古丁输液诱导的纹状体多巴胺释放217。人参被认为能够使睡眠周期时间分布正常化218,并且Rb1,Rb2和Rc人参皂苷能延长环己巴比妥睡眠时间,在小鼠身上展现出额外的对于中枢神经系统(CNS)的抑制作用。
  • 在健康的志愿者中,饮用含有人参和银杏提取物的软饮料会导致心电图(EEG)改变。219 在体外实验中,西洋参提取物以浓度电压依凭模式,强直性并且可逆地阻断了Na(+)通道, 这可能是由于与非活跃状态的通道互作。120  单一人参皂苷Rb1与总提取物有相似效果。这些以及其他一些体外研究的结果表明西洋参能保护神经细胞免于氧化和缺血性损伤。220 当发生脑缺血再灌注损伤,循环性休克,中暑引起的大脑损伤后,参麦(人参,五味子果实,麦冬)也表现出对小鼠的保护作用。15,221,222,37 对此的一个解释是参麦具有抗氧化活性。15,221,222,37 小鼠研究表明糖尿病模型个体在服用了参麦活血汤后,感觉神经传导速度变快。40 在动物研究中,参麦(人参,麦冬,五味子)也许对脑内出血223和神经细胞224起到保护作用。
  • 虽然人体研究表明人参能加强认知表现23,但其原理还不得而知,也许和人参血糖性质有关22,93。人参影响脑部活性,尤其是增加了皮脂水平多巴胺,去甲肾上腺素,血清素和cAMP。214 体外研究表明人参增强了脑部能量有氧生成。225 对于猫,人参皂苷有轻微的EEG和行为镇定作用,Rg1,Re和Rb2比其他皂苷更有效。
  • 毒理效应:尽管一些Panax ginseng根多糖有细胞保护活性226, 更多研究关注人参的细胞毒性。在体外研究中,人参醚油和人参皂苷苷元20(S)-原人参二醇,20(S)-原人参三醇和人参皂苷Rh2被发现对于小肠和白细胞生长有强毒性。43,65,227 原人参三醇还能快速抑制细胞呼吸,干扰乳腺癌细胞细胞能量平衡。228 然而,其他体外实验没有发现人参对于AIDS或是慢性疲乏综合征病人单核细胞有毒性。229 
  • 细胞色素P450(CYP)效应:根据现有证据,Panax ginseng不改变CYP450代谢。在体外,Panax ginseng中人参皂苷对于CYP3A 活性没有抑制效果103,然而它们的肠道细菌代谢物有潜在抑制CYP3A 活性作用117. 在临床试验中也没有观察到Panax ginseng针对CYP活性的作用。230 C57BL/6J小鼠经过三天 5g/kg每天摄入CVT-E002后,对肝脏微粒体CYP催化活性并没有影响。118 CVT-E002是一种西洋参(Panax quinquefolius)专有提取物。118 体外实验室研究表明,Cold-fX®在广泛的浓度范围内对人体肝脏重组子细胞色素P450(CYP)药物代谢同工酶1A2, 2B6, 2C19, 2C9, 2D6和3A4 都没有任何影响。119
  • 皮肤病学作用:人参的皂苷能通过改变转化生长因子-β受体在成纤维细胞中的表达加速纤维连接蛋白合成。231这一过程被认为有助于伤口愈合。局部滴旋高丽红参提取液能够增加整个真皮中的纤维连接蛋白(小鼠),脱氧核糖核苷酸(DNA)和蛋白质合成(人体纤维细胞)。232
  • 内分泌作用:一些临床医师仍然相信,认为人参对血糖有影响缺乏证据233,这是因为研究方法上的问题234。人参可能有胰岛素类似物78,对2型糖尿病有降血糖的作用,这可能是由于人参加快了肝脏对于葡萄糖的利用。77,75 没有糖尿病的人群在服用西洋参后也发现了降血糖现象74,75。 但是有一个研究没有发现这种效果,这可能是因为使用的人参的人参皂苷浓度不同导致的差异。70,112 尽管,在另一项研究中,人参对健康个体餐后血糖有降血糖作用,也并没有出现血糖过低。75 相似地,Panax ginseng(G115) 显著降低空腹血糖水平。但是当血糖升高时,人参对于血糖的作用与空腹时相反。94 一项研究表明,西洋参的降血糖效应可能是间歇依赖。235 40%的检测没有发现预期程度的血糖降低作用。一些品种的人参(加拿大白参,美国红参,高丽红参和三七人参)降低血浆血糖79可能是因为它们有类似磺酰脲的活性69
  • 另外,人参似乎能加快肝脏脂肪合成,刺激葡萄糖运输,增强糖原储存,抑制脂解,抑制脂过氧化反应76,236,78,101。人参能使beta胰岛分泌胰岛素增加,进而诱导血浆中胰岛素水平升高,这一机制和作用于葡萄糖的机制并不相同。71 Panax ginseng237 中分离出至少五种多糖,Panax quinquefolius238中分离出三种。 一项小规模研究表明,在进行标准重量训练后,50g人参提取物对于胰岛素并没有影响。239 连续八周每天摄入3g西洋参能够显著降低血浆中血浆酶原激活物抑制剂-1。72 血糖控制和血浆酶原激活物抑制剂-1之间有强关联。
  • 参附汤(人参和乌头根)和生脉粉末(人参根,麦冬,麦冬根,五味子果实)对于出血性小鼠(阳气不足模型)和热应激(阴气不足模型)血液糖皮质素水平都没有调节作用,但对糖皮质素受体水平有上调作用。240
  • 在小鼠中,人参皂苷主要影响下丘脑和/或脑下垂体,通过刺激促肾上腺皮质激素分泌,增加肾上皮脂腺中肾上腺酮水平。241 Panax ginseng提取物对于孕激素,盐皮质激素和糖皮质激素受体还有亲和作用。242
  • 锻炼作用:在高强度有氧训练前服用西洋参能够减少锻炼时肌酸激酶漏出,但是并不改变有氧运动能力。可能是由于西洋参能够减少细胞和肌肉损伤。18
  • 作用于繁殖效果:在体外实验中,经过1到2小时培育,Panax notoginseng提取物成功增强精子活力。243 人参皂苷增强了兔子海绵体组织样本中氮能神经一氧化氮释放244,2,并使平滑肌放松245。 Choi et al.发现长期服用高丽红参能够通过内皮细胞舒血管因子增强勃起能力。246 Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer提取物能够增加精子数量/mL浓度,连续摆动活力,增加血浆中总和自由睾酮,二氢睾酮(DHT),促卵泡激素(FSH)和黄体化激素(LH)水平,但是会降低平均催乳素(PRL)水平。108 在另一项临床研究中,Panax ginseng降低了有运动障碍的精子比例。107
  • 幽门螺杆菌抑制作用:Panax ginseng中的酸性多糖能够阻碍幽门螺杆菌粘附人体肠道上皮细胞。41
  • 血液作用:在体外实验中,Panax ginseng中的皂苷,包括人参皂苷Rb1,Rb2和Rg1,抑制了红细胞的高渗性溶血。247 一项体外实验使用了再生障碍性贫血病人的骨髓,发现Panax ginseng中的总皂苷能够促进骨髓培养,可能是因为促进了正常祖细胞的繁殖。248 在临床研究中,参麦注射(人参,五味子果实,麦冬)降低了肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)-alpha在血清中的浓度和骨髓CD34细胞的凋亡率。249
  • 保肝作用:口服人参皂苷产生的代谢产物,20-O-D-糖原-20(S)-原人参二醇,保护小鼠肝脏细胞免受由过氧化氢叔丁基引起的细胞毒性,显著抑制由过氧化氢叔丁基诱导的丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)和门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)增加。250 这一代谢物还能够稳定细胞膜。
  • 激素作用:对于人参对雌激素分泌是否有作用目前尚无清晰定论,因为各种研究有互相矛盾之处。一些体外研究表明,人参对于人体乳腺癌细胞有雌激素效果,可能是通过结合激活雌激素受体实现的。64,251,109,10,67,252  其他体外实验没有发现这个效应。66 这一区别可能是所用人参组分提取方式不同导致的。King et al.表明体外乳腺癌细胞用甲醇提取发现了雌激素成分但是用水提取就没有。8 传统的日本中草药unkei-to包含Panax ginseng和其他草药,它能刺激体外来自于受孕个体的高度黄体化粒层细胞分泌17ß-雌激素和孕激素。分泌的雌激素是0.3mcg/mL,孕激素是10mcg/mL。50
  • 人参被认为能够刺激促肾上腺皮质激素,进而增加血浆中的皮质醇水平123 小鼠在喂食了60天的人参后,血睾酮水平显著提高,前列腺重量显著降低。124 人参有类雌激素效应可能是由于在人体子宫肌层细胞溶质中,其组分会与雌二醇争夺雌激素和孕激素的结合位点253 一项研究检测了ArginMax® (The Daily Wellness Co., 森尼韦尔,加州)或是该药包含的人参提取物中是否含有雌激素活性。66 ArginMax®是一种女性性保健补充剂,包含了L-精氨酸,人参,银杏,达米阿那,复合维生素和矿物质。在人体子宫内膜腺癌细胞系中,没有发现ArginMax®Panax ginseng有雌激素活性。
  • 降压效果:关于人参对于血压的作用也是说法不一。对于高血压人群,3g西洋参对于各项动态血压指标没有影响,和服用安慰剂的没有区别,对于24h血压和肾功能也没有影响。 95,113 在另一项临床研究中,每天摄入Panax ginseng 提取物200mg,在实验第一天,健康成年人服用2小时后增强了QTc期并且降低了舒张压,但是并没有临床显著性。59 有其他研究报道了人参的升血压作用。53,54 各种关于人参血压作用的结果的不一致可能与使用剂量有关。62,254,60,54
  • 人参在人体55,58和动物60中的降血压作用可能与某些人参皂苷(比如Rb1)57,61,62,63引起的平滑肌松弛有关。一项动物实验表明人参能够同时起到收缩和放松的效果,这可能解释了人参皂苷对于血压双重作用。
  • 免疫调节活性:人参提取物对激素和细胞免疫的压制和增强作用都有报道。25,255 差异可能可能是由服用计量,组分和治疗时间引起的。人参被认为能够提高免疫功能,因此被用于癌症和呼吸系统感染治疗。256 人体或动物实验发现,人参能够激活天然杀伤细胞活性257,258,259,229,157,增强巨噬细胞25,增加肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)-alpha产量260,细胞因子产量261,26,抗体依赖细胞毒性229,96,中性粒细胞细胞内杀死,循环淋巴细胞转化262,增加抗体产量257,增强疫苗效果263,抗补体活性254以及淋巴细胞有丝分裂活性264。通过这些作用进而增强免疫功能。研究表明人参对于外周血白细胞数量和淋巴细胞亚组份没有作用。265
  • 人参的免疫调节作用可能要归功于某些组分,比如从根部提取的人参多糖266。还有对淋巴细胞有不同调节作用的人参皂苷267以及人参S-IIA。人参S-IIA是人体淋巴细胞和THP-1细胞产生的IL-8的有效诱导剂268。某些多组分配置剂,比如CKBM(人参,五味子,山楂,红枣和大豆)也具有调节细胞内信号和细胞因子的作用。24
  • 西洋参 (Panax quinquefolius, CVT-E002,CV Technologies Inc.)提取物中富多糖组分也具有免疫调节功能,可能是因为这些组分能够刺激淋巴细胞的炎症因子分泌,增强针对流感刺激的IFN-γ分泌。在临床研究中,含有CVT-002 的Cold-fX® 对于预防和治疗上呼吸道感染都有效果。4,5,100  Cold-fX®能够增加NK细胞和吞噬细胞活性,导致病原体的细胞溶解和吞噬效果增强和IFN-γ分泌。体内和体外证据表明Cold-fX®的抗病毒效应与它的免疫调节特性有关。269,256,270,27,92,271
  • 有研究表明高丽红参能够延缓人体免疫缺陷1型病毒 (HIV-1)感染病人的疾病进程,减慢CD4 T细胞减少。272
  • 脂肪生成作用:人参可能能抑制脂解,促进脂肪生成。273,274
  • 烟碱活性:一项体外研究表明Panax ginseng提取物对于烟碱受体和毒蕈碱型受体都具有亲和性,对烟碱受体的亲和性更高,但这一活性不是因为胆碱造成的。275 人参皂苷以不同的方式调节乙酰胆碱受体。
  • 光敏感性:实验研究表明Panax ginseng在低浓度时是光保护剂,在高浓度时是光敏剂。80
  • 蛋白质合成作用:一项体外实验表明,人参能够促进人体成纤维细胞的蛋白质合成。277
  • 蛋白质酪氨酸激酶效应:一项实验表明,西洋参中的人参皂苷和Panax ginseng根部的非皂苷组分能显著抑制由缺氧/复氧诱导的蛋白质酪氨酸激酶激活。134
  • 肺部作用:研究者在体外支气管平滑肌中发现了一种人参皂苷诱导,一氧化氮调节的舒张效应。13 这可能就是唯一一起人体临床报道的支气管扩张作用的作用机制。68 人参皂苷具有血管舒张,防止肺部内皮细胞受到氧自由基伤害的作用。这其中的机制也可能是因为人参皂苷促进了一氧化氮释放。61 使用人工胃液消化G115.®提取物更能明显发现这些效应。278 参麦(人参,五味子果实,麦冬)增强了体外膈肌收缩。279,45,280
  • 脉搏改变(TCM):测量脉搏是传统中医(TCM)用来检查心跳的方法之一。一剂Panax ginseng 或Panax quinquefolius 提取物对于脉搏的傅里叶分量有特定作用。58 Panax ginsengPanax quinquefolius能显著增强C6,C7,C8和C9的谐波分量。西方医学看待脉搏的方式与中医不同。因此,结果可能无法适用于西方关于脉搏和健康的观点。
  • 辐射保护作用:人参皂苷能在伽马射界照射前显著提高培养的哺乳动物细胞抗辐射能力。281人参对于小鼠也有辐射保护作用,其中的人参作用成分是CM-A,G-1和G-3。282 Panax ginseng还能预防辐射引起的掉发,这种掉发是由小囊中细胞程序性死亡导致的283
  • 肾功能影响:在临床试验中,给梗阻性黄疸术后病人使用五味子和生脉注射液能够抑制炎症介质,增强血动力,保护肾脏功能。42 生脉注射液的肾脏保护功能也体现在5/6肾切除的小鼠身上。284
  • 性作用:人参皂苷能够促进兔子海绵体组织样品中氮能神经释放一氧化氮244,2,引起平滑肌舒张245。在一项包含了90名勃起障碍病人的临床试验中,人参皂苷改变了早期消肿,阴茎硬度,周长和性欲。106
  • 对睡眠作用:在小鼠身上,人参能暂时性地增加慢波睡眠,尽管这一效应在2周后就回到了基线水平。285
  • 类类固醇效应:在体外实验中,Panax ginseng抑制了外周血淋巴细胞的植物血凝素刺激作用,表明Panax ginseng有类似类固醇的效果。121
  • 刺激物效应:Panax ginseng提取物含有和瓜拉那相似的成分,瓜拉那是一种有名的植物刺激物。20
  • 刺激/生长效果:体外实验表明,Panax ginseng和热处理后的人参能够通过促进新细胞的生长,刺激人成纤维细胞的生长。286,1,6 受到辐射的动物在注射人参后骨髓中的巨噬细胞加速恢复。48 人参皂苷Rg1能够增强激素和细胞免疫反应。Kenarova报道,经过人参皂苷处理的小鼠脾脏细胞,在注射羊红血球细胞作为抗原后,表现出明显更高水平的空斑形成反应和血细胞凝聚抗体效价。287 另外,Rg1增加了抗原反应辅助T细胞,T淋巴细胞和NK细胞数量。
  • 泌尿系统作用:国际奥林匹克协会(IOC)对使用了Cold-fX®的运动员进行尿检后并没有发现IOC违禁物质。51
  • 伤口愈合作用:人参传统上被用来治疗伤口,这可能是人参皂苷Rb1和Rb2的活性作用。Rb1可能通过刺激血管表皮生长生成和缺氧诱导因子表达增加,促进血管再生。288 Rb2则会通过增加表皮细胞生长因子和它的受体,纤维连接蛋白,角蛋白和胶原酶1来刺激表皮细胞繁殖和形成。289
  • 其他:人参皂苷的药理效果已经在多篇文章中总结过。290,47,291三七人参(Panax notoginseng)的药理活性和组分也有综述。草药制品,包括人参的潜在抗癌特性也有相关综述。293
  • 药效学/动力学
  • 不论是小鼠口服还是静脉注射,人参中的人参皂苷都不容易被吸收294,295,296  比如口服后Rb1和Rg1的生物利用度分别为0.71%和3.29%294  其他未证实研究报告小鼠口服后,甾体皂苷元beta-谷甾醇和人参皂苷Rg1的生物利用度为50-60%。 但是鼻腔给药似乎能提高吸收率。297,298 口服人参皂苷的低利用度可能与胃,大肠,肝脏对它的高清除度有关,而人参皂苷较差的细胞膜透过性可能是一个更重要的限制因素294,295,尤其是人参皂苷只能通过简单扩散被动吸收294或需要主动转运蛋白299。卡波姆和冰片能够增强肠壁的低吸收率。296 一旦吸收,人参皂苷的分布可以用二室模型描述。300
  • 尽管最近几项研究都关注人参皂苷本身,但也有研究者关注这些化合物的肠道代谢产物。这些产物可能具有医学研究者关心的活性,比如抗癌功能。这些代谢产物包括了20-O-(beta-D-吡喃葡萄糖)-20(S)-原人参二醇,也被称为化合物K或者是IH-901,和20(S)-原人参三醇,这个也被称为M4。301,302,303,304 Akao et al的小鼠研究说明了人参皂苷Rb1变成化合物K的代谢过程。给去除了真杆菌属细菌的老鼠口服Rb1,他们的血浆,肠道和粪便中没有化合物K和任何其他代谢产物,Rb1只在粪便中而不是在血浆中。304
  • 肝脏似乎能够有效地清除血液中的化合物K301并且几乎没有被尿液排出302。化合物K也可能被消化道被动吸收302。在肝脏中,24%的人参皂苷Rg1能和血浆蛋白结合,48%的能和组织蛋白结合,但这些需要进一步验证。
  • 在一项研究中小鼠被注射了代谢物M4,M4被小肠吸收,与脂肪酸发生酯化反应,最终累积在肺部和肝脏等组织中。303
  • 1.有关人参组分的代谢排泄的研究并不多。人参皂苷可能是通过尿液排出而且只是少量的痕迹量。一项研究通过追踪参麦注射志愿者血浆中人参皂苷Rg1和Re的浓度来研究参麦注射剂(人参,五味子果实,麦冬)药代动力。305 结果表明静脉注射Rg1和Re的分布和清除是非常迅速的,药代动力显示出二室模型特征。

 

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