Immobilized Enzymes

Applications of enzymes to synthesis of organic compounds offer potential advantages in such aspects as the formation of stereochemically and regiochemically defined products. In addition, thanks to their functionality under mild reaction conditions, such as ambient temperature and pressure and use in aqueous media, enzymes are useful in the contexts of green chemistry and sustainability.

Historically, to give but one example, much of the work in enzyme-catalyzed reactions for organic synthesis has involved either ester hydrolysis or esterification. The classic legacy Sigma-Aldrich portfolio of enzymes includes several esterases and lipases, which can be used for organic synthesis.

1. Whitesides, G.M., and Wong, C.-H., “Enzymes as Catalysts in Synthetic Organic Chemistry”. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 24, 617-638 (1983).
2. Turner, N.J., “Recent Advances in the Use of Enzyme-catalysed Reactions in Organic Synthesis”. Nat. Prod. Rep., 11, 1-15 (1994).
3. Roberts, S.M., “Preparative biotransformations: the employment of enzymes and whole-cells in synthetic organic chemistry”. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. I, 157-169 (1998).
4. Koeller, K.M., and Wong, C.-H., “Enzymes for chemical synthesis”. Nature, 409(6817), 232-240 (2001).
5. Davis, B.G., and Boyer, V., “Biocatalysts and enzymes in organic synthesis”. Nat. Prod. Rep., 18, 618-640 (2001).
6. Ahluwalia, V.K., and Kidwai, M., (editors), New Trends in Green Chemistry. Kluwer Academic Publishers (Boston / Dordrecht / London) and Anamaya Publishers (New Delhi) (ISBN 978-94-015-7102-9), pp. 88-108 (2004).
7. Drauz, K., Groger, H., and May, O., (editors), Enzyme Catalysis in Organic Synthesis (Third, Completely Revised and Enlarged Edition). Wiley VCH (ISBN: 978-3-527-32547-4), 2012.

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01824 Acylase I, immobilized on Eupergit® C from Aspergillus sp. ≥50 U/g moist material
C1261 Carboxypeptidase A−Agarose ammonium sulfate suspension, ≥6 units/mL packed gel, 25 °C, enzyme from bovine pancreas
C9284 Catalase−Agarose pH 5.4(isoelectric point), ammonium sulfate suspension, enzyme from bovine liver
73940 Lipase immobilized from Candida antarctica beads, slightly brown, >2 U/mg
62278 Lipase, immobilized in Sol-Gel-AK from Candida rugosa ≥10 U/g
62279 Lipase, immobilized in Sol-Gel-AK from Pseudomonas cepacia ≥40 U/g
P0762 Phosphatase, Alkaline−Agarose from calf intestine ammonium sulfate suspension
P9290 Proteinase K–Agarose from Tritirachium album lyophilized powder
77087 ω-Transaminase, Aspergillus fumigatus recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥0.20 U/mg
T1763 Trypsin Agarose buffered aqueous suspension, from bovine pancreas trypsin
T4019 Trypsin−Agarose buffered aqueous suspension, from bovine pancreas trypsin