Coenzyme A and Other Acyl Transfer Reagents

Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH or HSCoA) is the key cofactor in the first step of the TCA cycle, responsible for transferring the acetyl group from pyruvate oxidation to oxaloacetate yielding citrate.

Coenzyme A is also a critical cofactor in fatty acid metabolism. Coenzyme A carries fatty acids through the catabolic/oxidation process in the mitochondria and transfers acetyl groups during the elongation process of fatty acid synthesis in the cytosol.

The acetyl moiety of acetylCoA is bound by a high-energy bond (free energy 34.3 kJ/mol) to the -SH group of Coenzyme A. It is also a precursor to steroids and other naturally occurring compounds, such as terpenes and acetogenins, present in plants.1,2

In the transfer reaction by Acetyl CoA of the C2 acetyl fragment, either the carboxyl group or the methyl group may react (electrophilic vs. nucleophilic reaction, respectively).2

AcetylCoA is prepared enzymatically by reacting Coenzyme A with Acetyl Phosphate and Phosphotransacetylase. The product is purified by ion exchange chromatography. Several methods of preparation and methods for the determination of Acetyl CoA and other CoA derivatives have been described in the literature.3,4,5 Coenzyme A is synthesized in vivo from pantothenate, cysteine, and adenosine. Pantothenate is phosphorylated, joined with cysteine, decarboxylated, joined with adenosine and phosphorylated again to the 3′ ribose position to yield Coenzyme A. 1
  • A.L. Lehninger, Biochemistry, p. 534, Worth Publishers, Inc. (1972).
  • T. Scott and M. Eagleson, Concise Encyclopedia: Biochemistry, 2nd ed., p. 4, Walter de Guyter Press, New York (1988).
  • E.J. Simon and D. Shemin, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 75, 2520, (1953).
  • E.R. Stadtman, Meth. Enzymol., 3, 931 (1957).
  • H.U. Bergmeyer, Meth. Enzym. Anal., 2nd English ed., Vol. 4, pp. 1988-2000, Academic Press, New York (1974).
In addition to carbohydrate and protein catabolism, in many tissues Acetyl-CoA is generated via be
Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH or HSCoA) is the key cofactor in the first step of the TCA cycle, the centr

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A1625 Acetoacetyl coenzyme A sodium salt hydrate cofactor for acyl transfer
A2181 Acetyl coenzyme A lithium salt ≥93% (HPLC)
A2056 Acetyl coenzyme A sodium salt ≥93% (HPLC), powder
A0627 Adenosine-5′-diphosphoglucose disodium salt ≥93%
A0752 Adenosine 5′-diphosphoribose sodium salt ≥93%
A5837 Arachidonoyl coenzyme A lithium salt ≥85%
B1638 Benzoyl coenzyme A lithium salt ≥90%
C6146 2-Butenoyl coenzyme A lithium salt ≥90% (HPLC)
B1508 Butyryl coenzyme A lithium salt hydrate ≥90%
C4282 Coenzyme A hydrate ≥85% (UV, HPLC)
C3144 Coenzyme A sodium salt hydrate cofactor for acyl transfer
C3019 Coenzyme A trilithium salt ≥93%
C0256 Cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine sodium salt dihydrate ~98%, from yeast, solid
D5269 Decanoyl coenzyme A monohydrate ≥90%
D3385 3′-Dephosphocoenzyme A ≥90% (HPLC)
G4401 Guanosine 5′-diphospho-β-L-fucose sodium salt ≥85%
G7502 Guanosine 5′-diphosphoglucose sodium salt
G5131 Guanosine 5′-diphospho-D-mannose sodium salt from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Type I, ≥97% (HPLC)
H1385 n-Heptadecanoyl coenzyme A lithium salt ≥90%
H2012 Hexanoyl coenzyme A trilithium salt hydrate ≥85%
H0261 DL-β-Hydroxybutyryl coenzyme A lithium salt ≥90%
H6132 DL-3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A sodium salt hydrate ≥90% (HPLC)
I0383 Isobutyryl coenzyme A lithium salt ≥85%
I9381 Isovaleryl coenzyme A lithium salt hydrate ≥90%
L2659 Lauroyl coenzyme A lithium salt ≥90% (HPLC)
M4263 Malonyl coenzyme A lithium salt ≥90% (HPLC)
M3013 β-Methylcrotonyl coenzyme A lithium salt ≥90%
M1762 Methylmalonyl coenzyme A tetralithium salt hydrate ≥90% (HPLC)
M4414 Myristoyl coenzyme A lithium salt ≥80.0%
O6877 Octanoyl coenzyme A lithium salt hydrate ≥95% (HPLC)
O1012 Oleoyl coenzyme A lithium salt ≥90% (HPLC)
P6775 Palmitoleoyl coenzyme A lithium salt ~90%
P9716 Palmitoyl coenzyme A lithium salt ≥90%
P5397 n-Propionyl coenzyme A lithium salt ≥85%
S0802 Stearoyl coenzyme A lithium salt ≥90%
S1129 Succinyl coenzyme A sodium salt ≥85%
U5252 Uridine 5′-diphospho-N-acetylgalactosamine disodium salt ≥98%
U4375 Uridine 5′-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine sodium salt ≥98%
U4500 Uridine 5′-diphosphogalactose disodium salt ≥97.0%
U4625 Uridine 5′-diphosphoglucose disodium salt hydrate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae ≥98%
U5625 Uridine 5′-diphosphoglucuronic acid ammonium salt 98-100%
U6751 Uridine 5′-diphosphoglucuronic acid trisodium salt 98-100%