Nucleic Acid Stains For Microscopy

Microscopy offers great potential for qualitative and quantitative studies on the structure and function of cells and is uniquely suitable for probing living cells. The specimen is illuminated by light of a certain range of wavelengths, which may not necessarily be monochromatic, while viewing emitted (fluorescence) light of longer wavelengths. New methods, like confocal microscopy, provide better resolution (~1.4 improvement) and enable the measurement of various parameters. A point source and a point detector, both achieved by a pinhole are used, while light from other than the focal plane is defocused at the confocal aperture and thus detected only weakly.
Schematic diagram of a confocal microscope.

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1.00121 Nuclear fast red-aluminum sulfate solution 0.1% for microscopy
1.00199 Picrofuchsin solution acc. to van Gieson for Microscopy
1.00567 Lugol's solution stabilized with PVP for the Gram staining
1.01287 Löffler's methylene blue solution for microscopy
1.01350 Leishman's eosine methylene blue for microscopy
1.01352 May-Grünwald's eosin methylene blue for microscopy
1.01383 Wright's eosin methylene blue solution for microscopy
1.01384 Brilliant cresyl blue solution for the staining of reticulocytes and trichomonads for microscopy
1.01424 May-Grünwald's eosine-methylene blue solution modified for microscopy
1.01647 Alcian blue solution for microscopy
1.02439 Eosin Y-solution 0.5% alcoholic for microscopy
1.05174 Hematoxylin solution modified acc. to Gill III for microscopy
1.05175 Hematoxylin solution modified acc. to Gill II for microscopy
1.06887 Papanicolaou's solution 2b Orange II solution for cytological cancer and cycle diagnosis
1.06888 Papanicolaou's solution 2a Orange G solution (OG 6) for cytological cancer and cycle diagnosis
1.09033 Schiff's reagent for microscopy
1.09203 Giemsa's azur-eosin-methylene blue for microscopy
1.09204 Giemsa's azur eosin methylene blue solution for microscopy
1.09215 Ziehl-Neelsen carbol-fuchsin solution for microscopy
1.09217 Gram's safranine solution for the Gram staining method
1.09218 Gram's crystal violet solution for the Gram staining method
1.09249 Mayer's hemalum solution for microscopy
1.09253 Papanicolaou's solution 1a Harris' hematoxylin solution for cytological cancer and cycle diagnosis
1.09254 Papanicolaou's solution 1b Hematoxylin solution S for cytological cancer and cycle diagnosis
1.09261 Lugol's solution (diluted iodine-potassium iodide solution) for the Gram staining method
1.09269 Papanicolaou's solution 3d polychromatic solution EA 65 (staining effect: blue-green) for cytological cancer and cycle diagnosis
1.09272 Papanicolaou's solution 3b polychromatic solution EA 50 for cytological cancer and cycle diagnosis
1.09275 Shorr staining solution for hormonal cytodiagnosis
1.09277 Türk's solution for leukocyte counting
1.09278 Wright's eosine methylene blue for microscopy
1.09844 Eosin Y-solution 0.5% aqueous for microscopy
1.10218 Gram's decolorizing solution for the Gram staining method
1.11955 Hemacolor® Rapid staining of blood smear Hemacolor® Rapid staining of blood smear Solution 1: fixing solution. CAS 67-56-1, EC Number 200-659-6, chemical formula CH₃OH., Solution 1: fixing solution
1.11956 Hemacolor® Rapid staining of blood smear Solution 2: colour reagent red
1.11957 Hemacolor® Rapid staining of blood smear Solution 3: colour reagent blue
113000 Acridine Orange - CAS 65-61-2 - Calbiochem
1.13741 Lactophenol blue solution for staining fungi
1.14275 Ponceau S (C.I. 27195) Ponceau S (C.I. 27195) for electrophoresis. CAS 6226-79-5, pH 9.0 (10 g/l, H₂O, 20 °C)., for electrophoresis
164545 7-Amino-4-methylcoumarin - CAS 26093-31-2 - Calbiochem Reagent used to prepare fluorogenic 7-amido-4-methylcoumarin (AMC) based substrates for the detection of proteolytic enzyme activity.
206700 Calcein-AM - CAS 148504-34-1 - Calbiochem A cell-permeable, non-fluorescent, and hydrophobic compound, which is rapidly hydrolyzed by intracellular esterases releasing the membrane-impermeable, hydrophilic, and intensely fluorescent calcein.
216254 BCECF/AM - CAS 117464-70-7 - Calbiochem A variable mixture of cell-permeable ester derivatives of BCECF that are hydrolyzed by cytosolic esterases to yield intracellularly trapped indicator BCECF.
216275-M 5-Carboxyfluorescein Diacetate - CAS 79955-27-4 - Calbiochem Vital stain. Non-fluorescent, hydrophobic agent that permeates intact cell membranes. In the cell, it is enzymatically hydrolyzed to a hydrophilic agent, 5-Carboxyfluorescein that exhibits strong fluorescence.
234610 Congo Red, High Purity - CAS 573-58-0 - Calbiochem An amyloidophylic dye that specifically stains stacked β sheet aggregates.
251500-M DAF-2 - CAS 205391-01-1 - Calbiochem A highly sensitive and specific fluorescent indicator for the direct detection of nitric oxide (NO) in vitro.
251505-M DAF-2 DA - CAS 205391-02-2 - Calbiochem A cell-permeable derivative of DAF-2 that is hydrolyzed to DAF-2 by intracellular esterases.
251515-M DAF-FM - CAS 254109-20-1 - Calbiochem A photo-stable nitric oxide (NO) fluorescent indicator with a detection limit of ~3 nM.
251520-M DAF-FM DA - CAS 254109-22-3 - Calbiochem A cell-permeable, photo-stable nitric oxide (NO) fluorescent indicator with a detection limit of ~3 nM.
251760 DAR-4M - Calbiochem A rhodamine-based photo-stable nitric oxide (NO) fluorescent indicator with a detection limit of ~10 nM.
251765 DAR-4M AM - Calbiochem A cell-permeable, photo-stable nitric oxide (NO) fluorescent indicator with a detection limit of ~10 nM.
268298 DAPI, Dihydrochloride - CAS 28718-90-3 - Calbiochem Cell-permeable DNA-binding dye.
287810 2ʹ,7ʹ-Dichlorofluorescin Diacetate - CAS 4091-99-0 - Calbiochem Cell-permeable fluorogenic probe that is useful for the detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (•NO) and for the determination of the degree of overall oxidative stress.
309800 Dihydroethidium - CAS 38483-26-0 - Calbiochem A cell-permeable, chemically-reduced ethidium derivative.
309825 Dihydrorhodamine 123 - CAS 109244-58-8 - Calbiochem Cell-permeable fluorogenic probe that is useful for the detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as peroxide and peroxynitrite.
311155 Dansyl Chloride - CAS 605-65-2 - Calbiochem Reagent used for fluorescent labeling of proteins, N-terminal amino acids, and amines.
322123 5,5ʹ-Dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic Acid) - CAS 69-78-3 - Calbiochem Sulfhydryl reagent used to characterize reactive SH groups.
331569 Ethidium Bromide Adsorber - CAS 69011-20-7 - Calbiochem Developed specifically for the safe and simple removal of ethidium bromide (EtBr) from aqueous staining solutions and running buffers used in nucleic acid separation gels.
343242-M FLUO 3/AM - CAS 121714-22-5 - Calbiochem Membrane-permeable version of FLUO 3. Unlike all other Ca2+ indicators, FLUO 3/AM is non-fluorescent until it is hydrolyzed in the cell by cellular esterases. It is insensitive to Mg2+.
344101 FSB - CAS 891180-93-1 - Calbiochem A fluorine analog of the amyloidophilic fluorescent probe BSB that crosses the blood-brain barrier and displays low toxicity.
344905 FURA 2/AM - CAS 108964-32-5 - Calbiochem Cell-permeable ester form of FURA 2.
344906 FURA 2/AM in Solution - CAS 108964-32-5 - Calbiochem
344911 Fura-2 LR/AM - CAS 172890-84-5 - Calbiochem Acetoxymethyl (AM) derivative of FURA-PE3 with spectral properties similar to the parent compound.
382061 Bisbenzimide H 33258 Fluorochrome, Trihydrochloride - CAS 23491-45-4 - Calbiochem Membrane-permeable, adenine-thymine-specific fluorescent stain.
382065 Bisbenzimide H 33342 Fluorochrome, Trihydrochloride - CAS 23491-52-3 - Calbiochem Cell-permeable, adenine-thymine-specific fluorescent stain.
420200 JC-1 - CAS 47729-63-5 - Calbiochem A cationic, fluorescent, carbocyanine dye that can be used as a ratiometric indicator of mitochondrial potential δΨm in cells, tissues, and isolated mitochondria.
475989 MTT - CAS 298-93-1 - Calbiochem Membrane-permeable yellow dye that is reduced by mitochondrial reductases in living cells to form the dark blue product, MTT-formazan.
551826 QUIN 2, Tetrapotassium Salt - CAS 73630-23-6 - Calbiochem Binding of Ca2+ leads to a major shift in UV absorption spectrum and a twenty-fold enhancement in fluorescence quantum yield.
553215 RAPIDstain™ Reagent - Calbiochem An ultrasensitive Coomassie-based reagent for staining polyacrylamide gels.
596200 Thioflavin T - CAS 2390-54-7 - Calbiochem A cell-permeable benzothiazole dye that exhibits enhanced fluorescence upon binding to amyloid fibrils.
6210-OP OmniPur® Methylene Blue, Trihydrate - CAS 7220-79-3 - Calbiochem
71078 RedAlert™ 10X Western Blot Stain Visualize proteins transferred to nitrocellulose or PVDF membrane
9710-OP OmniPur® Xylene Cyanol FF - CAS 2650-17-1 - Calbiochem
AG325 FLUORO-JADE® C
TMS-008 Alizarin-Red Staining Solution Alizarin red is a commonly used stain to identify calcium containing osteocytes in differentiated culture of both human and rodent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).
TMS-009 Safranin-O Staining Solution Safranin-O is often used to identify chondrocytes that have been derived from both human and rodent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).
TMS-010 Alcian-Blue Staining Solution Alcian blue if often used to identify chondrocytes from differentiated cultures of both human and rodent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).
A9231 Acridine Orange solution 2% in H2O
01673 Acriflavine suitable for fluorescence, BioReagent, ≥95.0% (AT)
01815 Actinomycin D for fluorescence, ≥90% (HPLC), from Streptomyces sp.
75068 9,10-Anthracenediyl-bis(methylene)dimalonic acid BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥90% (HPCE)
70706 Atto 520 BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥90.0% (HPCE/HPLC)
77810 Atto 520 NHS ester BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥80.0% (coupling to amines)
75784 Atto 565 BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥75% (sum of isomers, HPCE/HPLC)
72464 Atto 565 NHS ester BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥70.0% (coupling to amines)
70425 Atto 590 BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥90% (HPCE)
79636 Atto 590 NHS ester BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥60% (coupling to amines)
78493 Atto 610 BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥85.0% (HPCE/HPLC)
93259 Atto 610-NHS ester BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥90.0% (coupling to amines)
93711 Atto 655 BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥85% (HPLC)
76245 Atto 655 NHS ester BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence
94875 Atto 680 BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥90% (HPLC)
75999 Atto 680 NHS ester BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥90.0% (coupling to amines)
14530 bisBenzimide H 33258 for fluorescence, ≥98.0% (HPLC)
14533 bisBenzimide H 33342 trihydrochloride for fluorescence, ≥97.0% (HPLC)
72755 5-(Bromomethyl)fluorescein BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥95% (sum of tautomers, GC)
72301 9-(2-Carboxy-2-cyanovinyl)julolidine BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥97.0% (HPLC)
86826 5-Carboxyfluorescein suitable for fluorescence, BioReagent, ≥95% (HPLC)
21877 5(6)-Carboxyfluorescein BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥95% (HPLC)
21879 5(6)-Carboxyfluorescein diacetate BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥90.0% (HPLC)
92846 5-Carboxyfluorescein N-succinimidyl ester BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥90% (HPLC)
21965 5(6)-Carboxy-X-rhodamine BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence
41969 5-Carboxy-X-rhodamine N-succinimidyl ester BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence
21966 5(6)-Carboxy-X-rhodamine N-succinimidyl ester BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence
21953 5(6)-Carboxytetramethylrhodamine BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥85% (sum of isomers, HPCE)
55222 6-Carboxytetramethylrhodamine BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥90% (HPLC)
53048 5-Carboxy-tetramethylrhodamine N-succinimidyl ester BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence
21955 5(6)-Carboxytetramethylrhodamine N-succinimidyl ester BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥70% (coupling to amines)
88997 6-Carboxy-tetramethylrhodamine N-succinimidyl ester BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence
32670 4′,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride suitable for fluorescence, BioReagent, ≥95.0% (HPLC)
72335 9-(2,2-Dicyanovinyl)julolidine BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥97.0% (HPLC)
37291 Dihydroethidium BioReagent, suitable for fluorescence, ≥95% (HPCE)
46065 Ethidium bromide for fluorescence, ≥95.0% (HPLC)
46067 Ethidium bromide solution for fluorescence, ~1% in H2O
55817 Fluorescent red 630 ≥85% (HPLC)
78361 Fluorescent red 630 reactive for fluorescence, ≥80% (coupling to amines)
94457 NIR-641 N-succinimidyl ester ≥80% (HPLC), suitable for fluorescence, BioReagent
81845 Propidium iodide ≥94% (HPLC)