Carbohydrate Labels for Spectroscopy

Benefits of Spectroscopy
  • Flexibility regarding excitation and wavelengths as well as sample preparation
  • Relative low cost of instrumentation & outstanding selectivity and sensitivity
  • Identification of biomolecules using multiple parameters
  • Direct detection of ions and determination of pH-values

Steady-State Spectroscopy Most of the applications are based on constant excitation
Conventional Fluorometry - Measurements of emission light intensities at defined wavelengths suggested as excitation certain emission maxima of a fluorophore.
Total Fluorometry - Collection of data for a continuum of absorption as well as emission wavelengths.
Fluorescence Polarization - Polarized light used for excitation. Binding of fluorochrome-labeled antigens to specific antibodies affects polarization extent.
Line Narrowing Spectroscopy - Low-temperature spectroscopy that derives its selectivity from narrow-line emission spectra.

Time-Dependent Fluorescence Spectroscopy Time-resolved measurements contain more information than steady-state measurements, since the steady-state values represent the time average of time-resolved determinations
Single Photon Timing Technique - The time between an excitation light pulse and the first photon emitted by the sample is measured.

Frequency-Domain Fluorescence Spectroscopy The time decay of fluorescence is typically measured using a light source with an intensity modulated sinusoidally at a given frequency, by determining the phase delay and the relative modulation of the fluorescence signal with respect to the exciting light

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06627 2-Aminoacridone ≥98.0% (HPLC)
λex 420 nm; λem 538 nm in 0.1 M Tris pH 8.0
P28263 2-Phenylphenol 99%
λex 231 nm; λem 356 nm
17623 4-Bromomethyl-7-methoxycoumarin ≥97.0% (HPLC)
λex 312 nm; λem 395 nm in methanol
64785 4-Methoxybenzamidine ≥96.0% (NT)
λex 393 nm; λem 478 nm (after derivatization with glucose)
λex 393 nm; λem 478 nm(lit.)
08658 8-Aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid disodium salt ≥90% (CE)
λex 356 nm; λem 512 nm in 0.1 M phosphate pH 7.0
30434 Dansylhydrazine ≥90% (HPLC)
λex 340 nm; λem 525 nm in ethanol