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Life Science > Cell Biology > Antibodies > Learning Center > Antibody Explorer > Spotlights > Antibodies to Histone Modifying Enzymes
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Antibodies to Histone Modifying Enzymes

Regulation of gene expression is mediated by several mechanisms including DNA methylation, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, and posttranslational modifications of histones. One of the major modifications of histones consists of the dynamic acetylation and deacetylation of ε-amino groups of lysine residues present in the tail of core histones.1 The enzymes responsible for this reversible acetylation/deacetylation process are histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively.2 While HATs act as transcriptional coactivators, HDACs are part of transcriptional corepressor complexes.3

Mammalian HDACs can be divided into three classes according to sequence homology.4 Class I consists of the yeast Rpd3-like proteins HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3 and HDAC8. Class II consists of the yeast Hda1-like proteins HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC6, HDAC7, HDAC9 and HDAC10.5 Class III comprises the yeast Sir2-like proteins. Whereas class I HDACs are ubiquitously expressed, most class II HDACs are tissue-specific. Sir2 is an NAD-dependent histone deacetylase that appears to play an important role in chromatin silencing and life span prolongation through calorie restriction.6

Sigma® has a wide selection of antibodies to many of the histone modifying enzymes. The antibodies are carefully tested to provide high quality performance. These antibodies are valuable tools for scientists working on chromatin remodeling.

AntibodyExp_SS_HistMod_F1sm Figure 1. Immunohistology of anti-HDAC-1, -2 and -3 on human lymph node
AntibodyExp_SS_HistMod_F2sm Figure 2. Immunoblotting using Anti-Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) -1, -2 and -3
AntibodyExp_SS_HistMod_F3sm Figure 3. Immunoblotting using Anti-HAT1.
AntibodyExp_SS_HistMod_F4sm Figure 4. Immunoblotting using Anti-Histone Deacetylase 4.
AntibodyExp_SS_HistMod_F5sm Figure 5. Immunoblotting using Anti-Sir2.

Product Table

Description Host Clone Product No.
Histone Deacetylases
Anti-Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) Rabbit   H3284
Anti-Histone Deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) Rabbit   H3159
Anti-Histone Deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) Rabbit   H3034
Anti-Histone Deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) (ML-19) Rabbit   H9411
Anti-Histone Deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) (DM-15) Rabbit   H9536
Histone Acetylases
Anti-HAT1 (EE-21) Rabbit   H7286
Anti-HAT1 (EK-14) Rabbit   H7161
Monoclonal Anti-p300/CBP Mouse NM11 P2859
Anti-Sir2 (AS-16) Rabbit   S5313


  1. Wang, A.H., et al. Mol. Cell. Biol., 19, 7816-7827 (1999).
  2. Grozinger, C.M. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 96, 4868-4873 (1999).
  3. Fischle, W., et al. Biochem. Cell Biol., 79, 337 (2001).
  4. Khochbin, S., et al. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev., 11, 162-166 (2001).
  5. Fischle, W., et al. J. Biol. Chem., 274, 11713-11720 (1999).

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