Glycolysis

Glycolysis is the almost universal pathway that converts glucose into pyruvate. In aerobic organisms the pyruvate passes into the mitochondria where it is completely oxidised by O2 into CO2 and H2O and its potential energy largely conserved as ATP. In the absence of sufficient oxygen the pyruvate is reduced by the NADH to a wide range of products, especially lactate in animals and ethanol in yeasts.

The glycolytic pathway is highly upregulated in rapidly-growing malignant tumor cells, a phenomenon first described by Ottow Warburg in 1930. This phenomenon, commonly refered to as the Warburg effect, is a preference for highly proliferatively active cells to shift to aerobic glycolysis even in the presence of adequate oxygen. In aerobic glycolysis, NADH is regenerated through the reduction of pyruvate to lactic acid by lactate dehydrogenase. Enzymes of the glycolytic pathway are are potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer.

Glycolysis Enzymes

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A8811 Aldolase from rabbit muscle ammonium sulfate suspension, 10-20 units/mg protein
A2714 Aldolase from rabbit muscle lyophilized powder, ≥8.0 units/mg protein
C3755 Creatine Phosphokinase from rabbit muscle Type I, salt-free, lyophilized powder, ≥150 units/mg protein
E6126 Enolase from baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) lyophilized powder, ≥50 units/mg protein
F0137 Fructose-6-phosphate Kinase from Bacillus stearothermophilus Type VII, lyophilized powder, ≥50 units/mg protein
F8381 Fructose-6-phosphate Kinase, Pyrophosphate-dependent from Propionibacterium freudenreichii (shermanii) lyophilized powder, 4.0-8.0 units/mg protein
G8887 Glucokinase from Bacillus stearothermophilus lyophilized powder, ≥250 units/mg protein
G5537 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase from baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) lyophilized powder, 70-140 units/mg protein
G6019 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase from human erythrocytes lyophilized powder, 50-150 units/mg protein
G2267 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase from rabbit muscle lyophilized powder, ≥75 units/mg protein
G0389 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase Agarose from baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) lyophilized powder, 50-150 units/g dry agarose, pH 7.6, 30 °C
G1881 α-Glycerophosphate Dehydrogenase-Triosephosphate Isomerase from rabbit muscle Type III, ammonium sulfate suspension, GDH 75-200 units/mg protein (biuret), TPI 750-2000 units/mg protein
H4502 Hexokinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Type F-300, lyophilized powder, ≥130 units/mg protein (biuret)
H5000 Hexokinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Type III, lyophilized powder, ≥25 units/mg protein (biuret)
H6380 Hexokinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae lyophilized powder, ≥350 units/mg protein, Protein ≥10 % by biuret
H8629 Hexokinase and Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase from baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) lyophilized powder, hexokinase ≥65 units/mg protein, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ≥75 units/mg protein (biuret)
I4504 Invertase from baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) Grade VII, ≥300 units/mg solid
L2625 L-Lactic Dehydrogenase from bovine heart Type III, ammonium sulfate suspension, ≥500 units/mg protein
L1006 L-Lactic Dehydrogenase from bovine heart Type XVII, buffered aqueous glycerol solution, ≥400 units/mg protein
L3916 L-Lactic Dehydrogenase from bovine heart 1000 units/mL
L1378 L-Lactic Dehydrogenase from bovine muscle Type X, ammonium sulfate suspension, ≥600 units/mg protein
L7525 L-Lactic Dehydrogenase from porcine heart ammonium sulfate suspension, ≥200 units/mg protein
L2500 L-Lactic Dehydrogenase from rabbit muscle Type II, ammonium sulfate suspension, 800-1,200 units/mg protein
L1254 L-Lactic Dehydrogenase from rabbit muscle Type XI, lyophilized powder, 600-1,200 units/mg protein
N4773 Neuron-specific enolase from human brain ≥95% (SDS-PAGE), buffered aqueous solution
P5538 Phosphoglucose Isomerase from Bacillus stearothermophilus lyophilized powder, 300-1,000 units/mg protein
P5381 Phosphoglucose Isomerase from baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) Type III, ammonium sulfate suspension, ≥400 units/mg protein (biuret)
P9544 Phosphoglucose Isomerase from rabbit muscle Type XI, lyophilized powder, ≥200 units/mg protein
P7634 3-Phosphoglyceric Phosphokinase from baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) ammonium sulfate suspension, ≥1000 units/mg protein
P1903 Pyruvate Kinase from Bacillus stearothermophilus Type VIII, lyophilized powder, 100-300 units/mg protein
P1506 Pyruvate Kinase from rabbit muscle Type II, ammonium sulfate suspension, 350-600 units/mg protein
P9136 Pyruvate Kinase from rabbit muscle Type III, lyophilized powder, 350-600 units/mg protein
P7768 Pyruvate Kinase from rabbit muscle Type VII, buffered aqueous glycerol solution, 350-600 units/mg protein
10109045001 Pyruvate Kinase (PK) from rabbit muscle
PK-RO Pyruvate Kinase (PK) from rabbit muscle
T2507 Triosephosphate Isomerase from baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) Type I, ammonium sulfate suspension, ~10,000 units/mg protein
T6258 Triosephosphate Isomerase from rabbit muscle Type X, lyophilized powder, ≥3,500 units/mg protein
T2391 Triosephosphate Isomerase from rabbit muscle Type III-S, ammonium sulfate suspension, ≥4,000 units/mg protein

Glycolysis Metabolites

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D5764 2,3-Diphospho-D-glyceric acid pentasodium salt glycolysis metabolite Metabolite of glycolysis within human erythrocytes produced by 2,3-diphosphoglycerate mutase in an alternative to the glycolytic pathway. Binds to hemaglobin to reduce oxygenation.
P8877 D-(−)-3-Phosphoglyceric acid disodium salt ≥93%, powder 3-Phosphoglyceric acid is an intermediate in glycolysis. It also a precursor in the formation of serine.
G5400 D-(+)-Glucose ≥99% (GC)  
G8270 D-(+)-Glucose ≥99.5% (GC)  
G7528 D-(+)-Glucose BioXtra, ≥99.5% (GC)  
G7520 D-(+)-Glucose plant cell culture tested, BioReagent  
G7021 D-(+)-Glucose powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture, ≥99.5%  
79480   D-2-Phosphoglyceric acid barium salt hydrate ≥70% (calc. on dry substance, enzymatic)  
F6803 D-Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate trisodium salt hydrate ≥98% (TLC) Fructose-1,6-biphosphate (F1,6P) is a glycolytic intermediate produced by the transfer of a phosphate from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate by the enzyme phosphofructokinase. Fructose-1,6-biphosphate, along with fructose-2,6-biphosphate, modulates the activity of phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), the rate-limiting step in glycolysis. During glycolysis, aldolase splits Fructose-1,6-biphosphate into dihydroxacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde phosphate. Fructose-1,6-biphosphate is also an allosteric activator of the M2 isoform of Pyruvate Kinase (PK-M2), the predominant form of pyruvate kinase in cancer cells.
F1502 D-Fructose 6-phosphate dipotassium salt ≥97% (enzymatic), amorphous powder  
F3627 D-Fructose 6-phosphate disodium salt hydrate ≥98%, amorphous powder Fructose-6-phosphate is a glycolytic intermediate produced by the isomerization of glucose-6-phosphate by phosphoglucoisomerase.
G7375 D-Glucose 6-phosphate dipotassium salt hydrate Sigma Grade, 98-100%  
G7250 D-Glucose 6-phosphate disodium salt hydrate Sigma Grade, ≥98% D-Glucose 6-phosphate is the core carbohydrate substrate for the enzymatic synthesis of archaetidyl-myo-inositols produced through a pathway involving myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase and CDP-archaeol.
G6526 D-Glucose 6-phosphate potassium salt ≥95%  
G7879 D-Glucose 6-phosphate sodium salt Sigma Grade, crystalline In cells, D-glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) is generated when glucose is phosphorylated by hexokinase or glucokinase or by the conversion of glucose-1-phosphate by phosphoglucomutase during glycogenolysis. G6P lies at the beginning of both glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathways. It also can be stored as glycogen when blood glucose levels are high.
G5251 DL-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate solution 45-55 mg/mL in H2O Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is an intermediate in several metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. It is bactericidal and a potent inhibitor of growth in E. coli.
19710 L-2-Phosphoglyceric acid disodium salt hydrate ≥80% (CE) Opposite enantiomer to the standard configuration found in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis.
49163 Glucose solution BioUltra, for molecular biology, ~20% in H2O  
10127647001 Glucose-6-phosphate In mammals, glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) is formed by a kinase acting on glucose. It plays several roles and has its fate determined accordingly. It can get converted back to glucose by a phosphatase enzyme. It can pass into glycogen, or enter into the energy-yielding Embden-Meyerhof path or into the 6-phosphogluconate pathway. Increased levels of blood glucose result in elevated levels of glucose 6-phosphate in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. This elevated intracellular level of G6P activates glycogen synthase. G6P may also be involved in the negative regulation of phosphorylation of glycogen synthase via cyclic AMP-stimulated protein kinase.
P7127 Phospho(enol)pyruvic acid monopotassium salt ≥97% (enzymatic) Phospho(enol)pyruvic acid (PEP) is involved in glycolysis and gluconeogeneis. In glycolysis, PEP is metabolized by Pyruvate Kinase to yield pyruvate. In plants, PEP is involved in the formation of aromatic amino acids as well as in the carbon fixation pathway.
P7252 Phospho(enol)pyruvic acid tri(cyclohexylammonium) salt ≥98% (enzymatic) Phospho(enol)pyruvic acid (PEP) is involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In glycolysis, PEP is metabolized by pyruvate kinase to yield pyruvate. In plants, PEP is involved in the formation of aromatic amino acids as well as in the carbon fixation pathway.
P7002 Phospho(enol)pyruvic acid trisodium salt hydrate ≥97% (enzymatic) Phospho(enol)pyruvic acid (PEP) is involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In glycolysis, PEP is metabolized by pyruvate kinase to yield pyruvate. In plants, PEP is involved in the formation of aromatic amino acids as well as in the carbon fixation pathway.
10108294001 Phosphoenol-pyruvate PEP, monopotassium salt  
G6875 α-D-Glucose 1-phosphate dipotassium salt hydrate ≥97%  
G6750 α-D-Glucose 1-phosphate dipotassium salt hydrate BioXtra, ≥98%  
G1259 α-D-Glucose 1-phosphate disodium salt hydrate ≥95%  
G7000 α-D-Glucose 1-phosphate disodium salt hydrate ≥97% Glucose-1-phosphate (G1P) is produced from glycogen during glycogenolysis by the actions of glycogen phosphorylase. Conversion to glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) by phosphoglucomutase allows for entry of the glucose molecule into metabolic pathways such as glycolysis. During glycogenesis, G6P is converted to G1P by the actions of phosphoglucose isomerase.
G7018 α-D-Glucose 1-phosphate disodium salt hydrate ≥98%, BioXtra, lyophilized powder α-D-Glucose 1-phosphate is the α-anomeric form of glucose which contains a phosphate group on the primary carbon. In certain strains of Corynebacteria, glucose 1-phosphate has been shown to induce the build up of starch-like inclusion bodies within the cell.
G9380 α-D-Glucose 1-phosphate disodium salt hydrate 98-99%  
G7920 β-D-Glucose 1-phosphate bis(cyclohexylammonium) salt β-D-Glucose 1-phosphate is a substrate for β-phosphoglucomutase, which converts it to β-glucose 6-phosphate by forming β-glucose 1,6-diphosphate as an intermediate. β-Phosphoglucomutase is utilized in both the maltose and trehalose catabolic pathways of lactic acid bacteria, generating β-D-glucose 1-phosphate as a metabolite.