TCA Cycle

Product #

Image

Description

Biochem/physiol Actions

Add to Cart

I1252 DL-Isocitric acid trisodium salt hydrate ≥93%  
M1000 L-(−)-Malic acid ≥95% (titration)  
A2056 Acetyl coenzyme A sodium salt ≥93% (HPLC), powder Acetyl-CoA is an essential cofactor and carrier of acyl groups in enzymatic acetyl transfer reactions. It is formed either by the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate in mitochondria, by the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, or by the oxidative degradation of certain amino acids. Acetyl-CoA is the starting compound for the citric acid cycle (Kreb′s cycle). It is also a key precursor in lipid biosynthesis, and the source of all fatty acid carbons. Acetyl-CoA positively regulates the activity pyruvate carboxylase. It is a precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Histone acetylases (HAT) use Acetyl-CoA as the donor for the acetyl group use in the post-translational acetylation reactions of histone and non-histone proteins.
A2754 Adenosine 5′-diphosphate sodium salt bacterial, ≥95% (HPLC)  
A2383 Adenosine 5′-triphosphate disodium salt hydrate Grade I, ≥99%, from microbial Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) is a central component of energy storage and metabolism in vivo. ATP is use in many cellular processes, respiration, biosynthetic reactions, motility, and cell division. ATP is a substrate of many kinases involved in cell signaling and of adenylate cyclase(s) that produce the second messenger cAMP. ATP provides the metabolic energy to drive metabolic pumps. ATP serves as a coenzyme in a wide array of enzymatic reactions.
P2 purinergic agonist; increases activity of Ca2+-activated K+ channels; substrate for ATP-dependent enzyme systems
C7129 Citric acid monohydrate reagent grade, ≥98% (GC/titration)  
C3144 Coenzyme A sodium salt hydrate cofactor for acyl transfer Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, HSCoA) is a coenzyme that facilitates enzymatic acyl-group transfer reactions and supports the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids. CoA is involved in the mechanisms of a wide variety of enzymes. In the presence of CoASH, organic carboxylic acids form acyl-CoA thioesters, which facilitates enzyme recognition. The acyl-CoA formed from xenobiotic carboxylic acids can add to the compound′s toxicity, which can lead to cellular metabolic dysfunction. It is involved in the oxidation of pyruvate in the Kreb′s cycle. CoA is needed for metabolic events. The bacterial CoA pathway is targeted for antimicrobial development. It mediates acyl group transfer and carbonyl activation. The CoA and its thioester levels are crucial for cellular homeostasis. CoA is also involved in regulating platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction. It acts as an essential cofactor in enzymatic acetyl transfer reactions.
F8509 Fumaric acid BioReagent, suitable for cell culture  
G7127 Guanosine 5′-diphosphate sodium salt Type I, ≥96% (HPLC) Guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP) is the diphosphate nucleoside of the purine guanine. GDP and GTP are involved in and may be used to study cell signaling via G-coupled protein receptors (GCPR) and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF) and a variety of GTPases.
O4126 Oxaloacetic acid ≥97% (HPLC) Oxaloacetic acid being an intermediate in the tri carboxylic cycle is central to metabolism. It is part of gluconeogenesis pathway. Mutation in pyruvate carboxylase leads to decreased production of oxaloacetate. It inhibits succinate dehydrogenase and is a key regulator of mitochondrial metabolism.
P2256 Sodium pyruvate ReagentPlus®, ≥99%  
S2378 Sodium succinate dibasic hexahydrate ReagentPlus®, ≥99%  
N8129 β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced disodium salt hydrate ≥97% (HPLC) NADH is a coenzyme that functions as a regenerating electron donor in catabolic processes including glycolysis, β-oxidation and the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle, TCA cycle). It participates in cell signaling events as well, for example as a substrate for the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) during the DNA damage response. The NAD+/NADH dependent sirtuins play key roles in stress responses during events involving energy metabolism, with implications in cancer biology, diabetes and neurodegenerative disease.
As a reagent, NADH can be used in enzyme cycling assays to amplify detection of activity of biologically relevant enzymes or metabolites present in low concentrations.