Melanocyte Stimulating Hormones (MSH)

Melanocyte stimulating hormones,melanocortins,include three distinct peptides that can stimulate synthesis and release of the pigment melanin by epidermal melanocytes. In the classical bioassay, injection of melanocyte stimulating hormones (MSH’s) causes dramatic darkening of a frog’s skin as melanin granules are transported along microtubules from a central cellular concentration to the cell’s periphery. The precursor to MSH is the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) protein made in the pituitary, several areas of the brain, and the skin. POMC is processed proteolytically and with post-translational modifications, in a tissue specific manner into a number of peptide hormones. These include γ-MSH from the POMC N-terminal portion, α-MSH from the same middle area as ACTH, and β-MSH from the C-terminus. In fact, α-MSH is residues 1-13 of ACTH.

Each of these peptides shares a his-phe-arg-trp sequence internally. Through five G-protein linked receptors, the MSH molecules are involved in physiological systems including appetite, regulation of glucose metabolism, behavior and learning, inflammation, and sexual arousal. We offer highly pure α,β, and γ-MSH as well as modified peptides that act as receptor agonists and antagonists.

Product #


Biochem/physiol Actions

Add to Cart

M4135 α-Melanocyte stimulating hormone ≥97% (HPLC) Hormone that stimulates melanogenesis; facilitates learning and memory; affects inflammatory and immune responses and peripheral nerve regeneration.
Pituitary hormone which causes darkening skin pigmentation from amphibians to humans. In mammals, it can also have behavioral effects on learning, attention, and memory.
α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) acts as an anti-inflammatory agent via down regulating the production and activity of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6 expressed in various cells of the immune system. It also controls the nitric oxide production associated with inflammation. α−MSH inhibits nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent gene transcription and NF-κB pathway induced by TNF and other inflammatory agents. This activity of α-MSH is mediated through the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and activation of protein kinase A (PKA) enzyme. α–MSH functions as a potent therapeutics for various conditions resulted through NF-κB activation including, inflammatory diseases, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication in AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), and septic shock. α-MSH has an essential role to play in melanin production in animals. α-MSH regulates development of several skin diseases, including cutaneous inflammation and hyper-proliferative skin diseases.
M8764 [Nle4, D-Phe7]-α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone trifluoroacetate salt ≥95% (HPLC) [Nle4, D-Phe7]-α-melanocyte stimulating hormone is 100 times more potent than α-MSH in stimulating melanoma tyrosinase, which is a rate limiting enzyme in melanin biosynthesis and is 26 times as potent as α-MSH in S91adenylate cyclase assay. α –MSH has an essential role to play in melanin production in animals. It also regulates development of several skin diseases, including cutaneous inflammation and hyper-proliferative skin diseases.
M4603 Acetyl-[Nle4, Asp5, D-2-Nal7, Lys10]-cyclo-α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Amide Fragment 4-10 ≥95% (HPLC) Screening analogs of the cyclic lactam melanocortin agonist MTII led to the identification of the agoutimimetic SHU9119. This compound shares pharmacological properties with the agouti peptide in that it is a potent antagonist of the melanocortin-4 receptor and a less potent antagonist of the melanocortin-3 receptor.
M2910 [D-Trp7, Ala8, D-Phe10]-α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Amide Fragment 6-11 ≥97% (HPLC) Selective inhibitor of α-MSH activity in frog skin bioassay; identical to (His1,Lys8)-GH which selectively releases growth hormone in vitro and in vivo; somatostatin antagonist.
M7907 N-Acetyl-[Cys4,10, D-Phe7]-α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Fragment 4-13 ≥95% (HPLC) Cyclic MSH analog that is resistant to tryptic degradation; potent agonist with prolonged melanotropic activity in frog and lizard skin bioassays.