Glucagon and Glucagon-Like Peptides

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G1774 Glucagon ≥95% (HPLC), powder, synthetic Glucagon (GCG) produces elevation in contractility and the frequency of contraction in heart muscles. It activates PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and thus, elevates glucose utilization by heart muscles. In multiple mammals, though not humans, this peptide induces lipolysis, and is the major lipolytic hormone in birds. It also induces gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in mammals and birds.
The paired box 6 (PAX6) regulates the expression of glucagon. High levels of glucagon referred to as hyperglucagonemia leads to a high risk of diabetes and is associated with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Defective glucagon hypersecretion is regarded as an etiopathogenic factor.
G2654 Monoclonal Anti-Glucagon antibody produced in mouse clone K79bB10, ascites fluid Glucagon is a 29-residue polypeptide hormone (MW 3482), produced in the pancreas. A related hormone, enteroglucagon (or oxyntomodulin), which is produced in the mucosa of the small and large intestine, consists of the 29 amino acid sequence of pancreatic glucagons extended by 8 additional residues at the C-terminus. The biological activities of pancreatic glucagon include glycogenolysis, lipolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis, which are antagonistic effects to those of insulin action, thus leading to increased blood glucose levels.. Glucagon regulates plasma lipid levels, energy balance and food intake. Glucagon and insulin have opposing roles and control glucose levels. Glucagon suppression is considered as one of the many therapies for controlling diabetes. Immunocytochemical studies have revealed the presence of pancreatic glucagon inside the A or cells, which constitute 15-20% of the islet cell population. These cells are located preferentially at the periphery of the human pancreatic islets. Glucagon imbalance could also contribute to hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus. Deletion in the glucagon gene locus is associated with mental retardation and facial dysmorphism in children and infants. Pathological manifestations of the glucagon-type peptide reside almost exclusively with the existence of tumors or glucagonomas, as no states of glucagon-cell deficiency or hyperplasia have been identified. High levels of glucagon is associated with pancreatic tumors and necrolytic migratory erythema.
Glucagon-specific antibodies would prove useful as an a cell and tumor markers applying immunohistochemical techniques, and as an analytical tool in quantification of the hormone.
Glucagon is critical in increasing blood sugar through glycogenolysis and increased gluconeogenesis. It regulates lipid and protein metabolism and modulates the fuel supply to all the organs. Glucagon plays a vital role in the modulation of postprandial hepatic glucose production. It is used to treat obesity. Elevated levels of glucagon are associated with glucagonoma and type 1 diabetes. It acts as a ligand to specific G-protein coupled receptor.
G8147 Glucagon-Like Peptide I Amide Fragment 7-36 human ≥97% (HPLC), powder GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1) (7-36) amide is a potent insulinotropic peptide, which initiates the glucose-induced insulin release after meals or oral glucose intake. It has an anti-diabetogenic effect and thus, might have use in the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
G8166 Glucagon-Like Peptide 2 -Arg human trifluoroacetate salt >90% (HPLC), solid Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) influences the functionality of gastrointestinal tract by participating in the feedback loop to the brain for the control of food intake. It also controls digestion and absorption, and has tropic effects post chemotherapy injury or surgical resection. This peptide is also responsible for epithelial cell proliferation of the small bowel. Studies in rats show that this peptide enhances the effects of the ileal-brake hormones, GLP-1 and peptide YY. It also negatively regulates gastrointestinal motility and secretion. Thus, it has potential as a therapeutic agent in short-bowel syndrome.
Glucagon-like peptide 2 is a neuropeptide that inhibits food intake when injected into the lateral ventricles of the brain and may mediate satiety. It is also a growth factor that stimulates proliferation and blocks apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells.
G9416 Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Fragment 7-37 human ≥96% (HPLC) Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Fragment 7-37 human (GLP-1-(7-37)) interacts with the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1r). It mediates insulin release by stimulating the cyclic AMP accumulation in islet cells GLP-l(7-37) is a potential therapeutic agent due to its insulin-secretagogue functionality.
G3265 Glucagon-Like Peptide I human ≥97% (HPLC) Glucagon-Like Peptide I (GLP1) controls the metabolism of glucose, by inducing the secretion of insulin and suppressing that of glucagon. Studies in Indonesian population show that reduced levels of this protein are linked with increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Plasma levels of this hormone also show significant association with systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels.