Signaling by Inositol Phospholipids
When bound by nerve growth factor (NGF), the high affinity NGF receptor, TrkA, autophosphorylates tyrosine residues in its cytoplasmic domain. The activated receptor binds to and activates phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ), which cleaves membrane-bound phosphatidylinositol-bisphosphate (PIP2) to generate D-myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). IP3 diffuses from the plasma membrane to its receptor on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is coupled to a Ca2+-release channel in the ER membrane. There it stimulates the release of Ca2+ from ER stores resulting in an increase in the cytosolic concentration of Ca2+. Cytosolic Ca2+ is then available for binding to calmodulin or to various Ca2+-binding cytoskeletal proteins involved in microtubule and intermediate filament formation. Many of the enzymatic effects of the released Ca2+ are mediated through protein phosphorylations catalyzed by a family of Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinases (CaMK-II/IV).
Carpenter, G., and Ji, Q.S., Phospholipase C-gamma as a signal-transducing element. Exp. Cell Res. 253, 15-24 (1999).
Patel, S., et al., Molecular properties of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Cell Calcium 25, 247-264 (1999).
Takei, K., et al., Regulation of nerve growth mediated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors in growth cones. Science 282, 1705-1708 (1998).

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P6641 1,2-Diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine solution ≥97%, from bovine brain, chloroform:methanol solution A slowly metabolized structural phospholipid found mainly in gray matter.
P7769 1,2-Diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine ≥97% (TLC), from bovine brain, amorphous powder 1,2-Diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine or phosphatidylserine (PS) is a structurally diverse acidic phospholipid having fatty acid ester at the glycerol sn positions. Bovine brain cortex based PS is a potent brain nutrient. It favors neurotransmission and may improve memory in dementia. PS is also the major membrane phospholipid associated with the nuclear membrane, myelin, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi and mitochondria. The synthesis of PS is catalyzed by phosphatidylserine synthase 1 from L-serine and CDP-diacylglycerol in the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) domains of the endoplasmic reticulum. PS is externalized during phagocytosis and is dysregulated in tumors making it a potential marker for therapeutic targeting.
A slowly metabolized structural phospholipid found mainly in gray matter.
P2663 1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine ≥99% 1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) has the ability to enhance the constancy and in vitro antiproliferative effect of carmofur.
P3591 1,2-Dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate sodium salt ≥99%   178603-80-0
P4329 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine ≥99% (TLC)   63-89-8
O9262 1-O-Octadecyl-2-O-methyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine ≥99% (TLC), waxy solid Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) inhibitor.
P7693 3-sn-Phosphatidylethanolamine from bovine brain Type I, ≥98% (TLC), lyophilized powder The major structural phospholipid in brain, comprising 20-25% of total lipid; primarily localized to gray matter.
P9511 3-sn-Phosphatidic acid sodium salt from egg yolk lecithin ≥98% Phosphatidic acid might serve as a modulator of phagocyte respiratory burst. It also acts as a precursor of diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid.
P5660 3-sn-Phosphatidyl-L-serine sodium salt from bovine brain ≥95% (TLC) A slowly metabolized structural phospholipid found mainly in gray matter.
L1381 L-α-Lysophosphatidylcholine from bovine brain ≥99%, Type V L-α-Lysophosphatidylcholine possess cytotoxic effects and is present at high level in ischemia and atherosclerotic aortas.
Lysophosphatidylcholine is a major component of oxidized low density lipoproteins, and has been implicated in various inflammatory reactions, including atherosclerosis. It is a degradation product of phosphatidylcholine by phospholipase A and has cytolytic properties. The product is used to demyelinate spinal neurons and study the processes underlying remyelination. It activates protein kinase C, p38 MAP kinase, p42 MAP Kinase, and the jun kinase (JNK) pathway, and stimulates transcription of c-jun. Lysophosphatidylcholine accumulates during cardiac ischemia and may induce arrhythmias by uncoupling gap junction communication, and increase ischemic damage by enhancing Na+ loading in cardiac myocytes. It also activates TREK1, TREK2 and TRAAK K+ channels.
P2517 L-α-Phosphatidylinositol ammonium salt solution from bovine liver 10 mg/mL in chloroform, ≥98% (TLC) Phosphatidylinositol is a phosphoglyceride, containing inositol as a cyclohexanol head group. The phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway is also called as double signaling pathway as it generates two secondary messengers. It is associated with a number of physiological processes in plants. This includes the development of pollen and vascular organs, root and root hair growth, hormone response and stress tolerance.
Phospholipid membrane component, precursor of inositol phosphates.
BM0029 AM095 ≥98% (HPLC) AM095 is a potent and selective, orally bioavailable antagonist of lysophosphatidic acid receptor1 (LPA1). AM095 inhibited LPA-driven chemotaxis of CHO cells overexpressing mouse LPA1 and human A2058 melanoma cells. LPA1 has been shown to be involved in neuropathic pain. AM095 inhibition of LPA1 after spinal cord injury resulted in reduced demyelination and improvement in locomotor recovery.
C1649 Cardiolipin solution from bovine heart 4.7-5.3 mg/mL in ethanol, ≥97% (TLC) Cardiolipin is a mitochondrial phospholipid that is found in mammalian tissues in low concentrations. It is often a membrane component. Inhibits cell attachment of fibronectin, vitronectin and Type I collagen.
SML0332 Edelfosine ≥95% (HPLC) Edelfosine is a synthetic alkyl-lisophospholipid with anti-tumor activity. The compound induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. Edelfosine accumulates in the cell membrane, where it alters lipid composition and induces the co-clustering of lipid rafts and Fas/CD95 death receptor.
SML0544 GRI977143 ≥98% (HPLC) GRI977143 is a potent, specific LPA2 receptor agonist with no affinity for other LPA receptors. GRI977143 inhibits the initiation of apoptosis induced by adriamycin or serum withdrawal in MEFs derived from LPA2 knock-out mice transfected with an LPA2 expression vector, but has no affect in non-transfected cells.
SML0989 H2L5186303 ≥98% (HPLC) H2L5186303 is specific antagonist of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA2 (Ki = 7.2 nM). The compound H2L5186303 displays 40- to 1800-fold selectivity over other LPA receptors.
I141 Intralipid 20%, emulsion Intralipid is a lipid emulsion comprising soybean oil. It favors proinflammatory cytokines production and is recommended for the treatment of immune-mediated pregnancy and implantation failure. In parenteral nutrition, intralipid is the source of fats. It elicits protection in heart ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. Intralipid is an effective alternative for intravenous immunoglobulin and improves bioavailability of platinum based anti-cancer drugs.
SML0971 Ki 16425 ≥98% (HPLC) Ki 16425 possesses a short-lived inhibitory activity. It has been studied that Ki 16425 is effective in the inhibition of neuropathic pain‐like behaviors.
Ki16452 is a potent antagonist of the lysophosphatidic acid receptors LPA1 and LPA3, with greater than 30-fold selectivity for LPA1 over LPA2. The Ki values for LPA1 and LPA3 are 250 nM and 360 nM, respectively.
L7260 Oleoyl-L-α-lysophosphatidic acid sodium salt ≥98%, solid Endogenous agonist for LPA1 and LPA2 receptors. LPA does not induce angiogenesis, but has effects on endothelial cell physiology that are similar to those of sphingosine 1-phosphate. Induces cell migration of cancer and non-cancer cells.