Phosphatidic Acid Synthesis
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) produces most of the lipids required for the generation of new cell membranes. These lipids include cholesterol as well as the phospholipids phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidic acid (PA). PA is produced by the cleavage of PC to generate PA by the enzyme phospholipase D1 (PLD1). PLD1 is activated by various ligands (agonists) via G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and is mediated by protein kinase C (PKC) as well as by the small GTPbinding proteins Rho (RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42) and ADP-ribosylation factor1 (ARF1).
1. Exton, J.H., Phospholipase D. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 905, 61-68 (2000).
2. McPhail, L.C., et al., A novel protein kinase target for the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1439, 277-290 (1999).
3. Daniel, L.W., et al., Phospholipase D, tumor promoters, proliferation and prostaglandins. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1439, 265-276 (1999).

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