Just as the tissue culture medium must be optimized for each plant species, so must the antibiotic used to maintain sterility. When two antibiotics directed against bacterial wall synthesis were tested in an apple culture system, the cephalosporin cefotoxamine enhanced regeneration and shoot development, while carbencillin inhibited regeneration while promoting callus formation. (1) Agarobacteria, commonly used to introduce new DNA into a plant, must be eliminated after transfection. Sigma offers a wide spectrum of antibacterial molecules. Their mechanisms of action are primarily directed at protein synthesis via the bacterial ribosome or at assembly of the bacterial cell wall. Many of them are mainly used to select transfected cells and tissues that have incorporated a gene for resistance to a specific antibiotic. Only cells that contain the trans-gene will grow in medium containing that antibiotic. For example, hygromycin B acts as a selection agent for transformed cells containing the hpt gene as a marker, G418 selects against nptil, a neomycin resistance gene, and chloramphenicol selects for the cat gene. Some antibiotics have multiple uses; rifampicin inhibits chloroplast RNA polymerase and is used to study DNA transcription in plants.

(1.) Yepes, L.M., and Aldwinkle, H.S. Factors that affect leaf regeneration efficiency in apple, and effect of antibiotics in morphogenesis. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 37:257 (1994)

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C3416 Carbenicillin disodium salt BioReagent, plant cell culture tested
C7039 Cefotaxime sodium salt plant cell culture tested, BioReagent, powder
C1919 Chloramphenicol BioReagent, suitable for plant cell culture
G1279 G 418 disulfate salt plant cell culture tested, BioReagent
H9773 Hygromycin B from Streptomyces hygroscopicus plant cell culture tested, BioReagent, ≥60% (HPLC), lyophilized powder
P8692 Paromomycin sulfate salt plant cell culture tested, BioReagent
P8833 Puromycin dihydrochloride from Streptomyces alboniger powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
R7382 Rifampicin plant cell culture tested, BioReagent, ≥97% (HPLC), crystalline
S9007 Spectinomycin dihydrochloride pentahydrate potency: ≥603 μg per mg
V1130 Vancomycin hydrochloride from Streptomyces orientalis BioReagent, suitable for plant cell culture