Plant Profiler

Boswellia (Boswellia carterii)

Synonyms / Common Names / Related Terms
11-keto β-boswellic acid, Acetyl-11-keto β-boswellic acid (AKBA), African elemi (Boswellia frereana), Arabian incense (Bakhour), Bibal incense (Boswellia carterii), birdwood, Bosweilla, Boswellia carterii, Boswellia carterii, Boswellia dalziellii, Boswellia frereana, Boswellia ovalifoliolata, Boswellia papyrifera, Boswellia sacra, Boswellia serrata, Boswellia serrata gum resins, boswellic acids, boswellic acid acetate, BSB108, Burseraveae (family), carterii, dhup, frankincense, guggals, H15®, indish incense, Mexican bursera, nopane (Boswellia), oleogum resins, oleo-resin, olibanum, pentacyclic tritrepertinoid, sacra, pentacyclic triterpenic acids, salai guggal, sallai guggul, Sallaki®, S-compound®.

Mechanism of Action
Combination product examples:
Articulin-F® (Withania somnifera [ashwagandha], Boswellia serrata, Curcuma longai [turmeric], zinc complex); RA-1 (Withania somnifera [ashwagandha], Boswellia serrata, Zingiber officinale [ginger], Curcma longa [turmeric]).

  • Constituents: Boswellia serrata is a branching tree found in India, North Africa, and the Middle East. A gummy oleo-resin is found under the bark; oleogum resin from Boswellia species has been used in traditional medicine in India and African countries for the treatment of a variety of diseases.1 Extracts of this gummy exudate have been medicinally used and scientifically evaluated.
  • According to physiochemical research, boswellia (Frankincense) oil contains 13.1% monoterpenes, 1% sesquiterpenes, and 42.5% diterpenes.21 Other major components of the oil include: duva-3,9,13-trien-1,5alpha-diol-1-acetate (21.4%), octyl acetate (13.4%), o-methyl anisole (7.6%), naphthalene decahydro-1,1,4a-trimethyl-6-methylene-5-(3-methyl-2-pentenyl) (5.7%), thunbergol (4.1%), phenanthrene-7-ethenyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8,9,10,10a-dodecahydro-1,1,4a,7-tetramet hyl (4.1%), alpha-pinene (3.1%), sclarene (2.9%), 9-cis-retinal (2.8%), octyl formate (1.4%), verticiol (1.2%) decyl acetate (1.2%), and n-octanol (1.1%).
  • Studies of boswellia resin have identified several tritrepertinoids of the lupane, ursane, oleanane, and tirucallane skeletal types.40 Individual trepertinoids included lupeol, beta-boswellic acid, 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, acetyl beta-boswellic acid, acetyl 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, acetyl-alpha-boswellic acid, 3-oxo-tirucallic acid, and 3-hydroxy-tirucallic acid.
  • Trepertinoids isolated from extract of Boswellia carterii, including seven beta-boswellic acids (ursane-type), (1-7), two alpha-boswellic acids (oleanane-type) (8, 9), two lupeolic acids (lupane-type) (10, 11), four tirucallane-type (12-14, 16), and two cembrane-type diterpenes (17, 18), together the acetyl derivative of 14, were isolated and examined for their inhibitory effects on the induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) and on activation of (±)-(E)-methyl-2[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-6-methoxy-3-hexemide (NOR 1), a nitrogen oxide (NO) donor, and for cytotoxic activities against three human neuroblastoma cell lines.19
  • Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA), a pentacyclic trepertinoid, has been recognized as a therapeutic component of Boswellia serrata in Ayurvedic practice.18
  • Fingerprint analyses of the boswellic acids 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, alpha-boswellic acid, beta-boswellic acid, and their 3-O-acylated derivatives have been used for the authentication of the commercially obtained frankincense samples.25
  • Antibacterial activity: The methanolic extracts of Boswellia elongate and Boswellia ameero demonstrated antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria including multiresistant Staphylococcus strains.10
  • Antilipemic effects: In anti-hyperlipidemic studies performed in rats, boswellic acids have been found to reduce serum cholesterol and triglycerides.20
  • Antioxidant effects: Boswellic acids have not been found to act as antioxidants.16
  • Analgesic/sedative effects: A study in rats showed that the non-phenolic ration of Boswellia serrata gum resin (20-300mg/kg) exhibits an analgesic effect similar to morphine (4.5mg/kg), and a sedative effect (55-300mg/kg) comparable to chlorpromazine (7.5mg/kg).9 No further studies in animals or humans were available to substantiate these findings.
  • Anti-inflammatory activity: Multiple pentacyclic triterpenic acids, referred to as boswellic acids, have been isolated from resins of the boswellia species and identified as major anti-inflammatory components of boswellia gum resin extract.3,28,29,30,32,17,14,33 Doses of 50-200mg/kg of boswellia extract given orally to mice following the injection of an inflammatory agent into the intra-pleural cavity, inhibited polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration similar to the effect seen with indomethacin. Similarly effective anti-inflammatory activity has been observed in studies of rats with laboratory-induced paw inflammation, and in animal models with arthritis, gouty arthritis, and polyarthritis. Antipyretic activity in rats and rabbits has also been noted.32,30,27,31
  • Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid from boswellia has been identified as one of the primary anti-inflammatory trepertinoid acids in boswellia resin extract. Animals studies show that it inhibits the release of leukotrienes B4 (LTB4), which are potent inducers of bronchoconstriction and asthma.3,12,41,11,12,16,37,42 Additional studies have found that boswellia inhibits human leukocyte elastase (HLE), which is involved in the pathogenesis of emphysema, cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome.11,12
  • Results of studies suggest that boswellia extract may also inhibit TNF-alpha induced inflammatory response.13,15 The effects of acetyl-11-ketobeta-boswellic acid (AKBA) on TNFalpha-inducible metalloproteinase expression in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) was evaluated in vivo and in vivo.15 Treatment of HMECs for two days with either a 3% or 30% formulation protected against arthritis by preventing TNFalpha-induced expression and activity of MMP-3, MMP-10, and MMP-12. The 30% formulation was consistently more effective than the 3% formulation.
  • Earlier studies showed that boswellic acids reduces enzymes that are elevated in inflammatory conditions like arthritis, such as glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glycohydrolase, and beta-glucuronidase.43,44,38 Inhibition of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis and urinary excretion of connective tissue metabolites by boswellic acids have been proposed as support for the purported beneficial effects of boswellia in preventing the degradation of connective tissue in inflammatory arthritic conditions.
  • In a study of mice with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis, high doses of boswellia extracts were ineffective at reducing inflammatory responses and were associated with hepatotoxic effects, including hepatomegaly and steatosis.2 Based on these findings, the authors recommended that further research be conducted to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effects and potential hepatotoxic effects of boswellia in humans.
  • Anticancer activity: Several trepertinoid acids have been isolated from Boswellia serrata and Boswellia carterii and evaluated for their antiproliferative, cytotoxic, and cytostatic effects.14 Apoptotic, cytostatic, and antiproliferative activity against a number of cancer cell lines via different mechanisms have been demonstrated in in vivo and in vitro studies.34,23 Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) - a pentacyclic trepertinoid isolated from the resin of Boswellia serrata - was shown to potentiate apoptosis induced by TNF and chemotherapeutic agents, suppress TNF-induced invasion, and inhibit receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis.18 Based on these observations, the investigators concluded that AKBA may enhance apoptosis induced by cytokines and chemotherapeutic agents, inhibit invasion, and suppress osteoclastogenesis through inhibition of NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression. Park et al. concluded that the cytotoxic action of AKBA on meningioma cells may be mediated, at least in part, by the inhibition of the Erk signal transduction pathway.35,23 However, Hostanska et al. found that boswellia extract with the defined boswellic acid content was more effective at inhibiting cancer cell growth than pure 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA).5
  • Investigations using Boswellia carterii suggest that the mechanism of cytotoxic effects of a 1:1 mixture of alpha-boswellic acid acetate and beta-boswellic acetate occurred as a result of capsase-8 induced expression of death receptors 4 and 5.36 Moreover, activated capsase-8 directly activated capsase 3, resulting in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Among several trepertinoid acids isolated from the resin Boswellia carterii, seven showed potent inhibitory effects on induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigens by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells, and on activation of (±)-(E)-methyl-2[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-6-methoxy-3-hexemide (NOR 1), a nitrogen oxide (NO) donor.19 Moreover, the investigators noted that 15 acid compounds exhibited potent cytotoxic activities with IC50 values of 4.1-82.4mcM against human neuroblastoma cells.
  • In vitro evaluations of the anticancer effects of BC-4, an isometric compound isolated from Boswellia carterii extract, demonstrated cytostatic activity, which was evidenced by inhibition of cell population in the GI phase and topioisomerase II activity, as well as cell differentiation and antimigratory activity.7
  • Investigation of the cytotoxic activity of boswellic acids in human colon cancer cells was conducted, revealing that the acetyl-keto-beta form of boswellic acid exerts potent apoptotic activity, primarily via caspase-8 activation-dependent increases in cytoplasmic DNA-histone complex and pre G(1) peak.8 Boswellic acid also inhibited [(3)H] thymidine incorporation and cell viability. An earlier study by the same investigator assessed its effects in Jurkat cell lines and demonstrated time- and dose-dependant apoptosis in human leukemia cells.6
  • Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activity: Although boswellic acids extracted from Boswellia carterii, Boswellia frereana, Boswellia sacra, and Boswellia serrata are moderate to potent inhibitors of the major drug metabolizing CYP enzymes 1A2/2C8/2C9/2C19/2D6 and 3A4, they are not the major CYP inhibitory principles, according to Frank et al.25
  • Immunostimulant activity: In laboratory assay assessments, distilled 3% boswellia (frankincense) oil exhibited strong immunostimulant activity (90% lymphocyte transformation).21
  • Studies suggest that boswellic acids exert immunostimulant effects via G(i/0) protein(s) stimulating signaling pathways that control functional leukocyte responses, in a manner similar to that of platelet-activating factor.22 In polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL), 11-keto-Bas stimulated the formation of ROS and caused release of arachidonic acid, as well as its transformation to leukotrienes via 5-lipoxygenase. Research indicates that 11-keto-BA-induced ROS formation and arachidonic acid release are Ca(2+)-dependent and mediated by NADPH oxidase involving PI 3-K and p42/44(MAPK) signaling pathways. Expanding studies on differentiated hematopoietic cell lines (HL60, Mono Mac 6, BL41-E-95-A) show that the ability of boswellic acids to activate MAPK and mobilize Ca(2+) may depend on the cell type or the differentiation status.

  • Time to peak: In 12 healthy volunteers who took a single 333mg dose of Boswellia serrata extract (BSE), peak plasma levels (2.72 x 10(-3) ± 0.18mm/mL) of BSE were reached at 4.5 ± 0.55h.24 Plasma levels declined with a mean elimination half-life of 5.97 ± 0.95 h. Volume of distribution averaged 142.87 ± 22.78L and the plasma clearance was 296.10 ± 24.09mL/min. The AUC(0-infinity) was 27.33 x 10(-3) ± 1.99mm/mL. No adverse events were reported with this single dose.
  • In another study, 1,200mg of boswellia resulted in plasma concentrations of 10-32mcM of 11-keto-β-boswellia acid and 18-20mcM acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid, measured 2-3 hours following administration.4
  • Bioavailability: In a randomized, controlled trail, the effects of concomitant food intake on the bioavailability of a boswellic acid supplement made up from extracts of Boswellia serrata was evaluated.39 Healthy male subjects received 786mg dry extract of Boswellia serrata in either a fasted state or with a standardized high-fat meal. Compared to the fasted state, Boswellia serrata administered with a high-fat meal (treatment B) led to several-fold increased areas under the plasma concentration-time curves as well as peak concentrations of beta-boswellic acid (betaBA), 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (KbetaBA), and acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKbetaBA). Plasma levels of both acetyl-alpha-boswellic acid (AalphaBA) and alphaBA were undetectable in volunteers who took the supplement in a fasted state, while they were detectable in volunteers who took it in a fed state. These findings demonstrate a profound effect of food intake on the pharmacokinetic profile of the boswellic acids.
  • Pharmacokinetic tests of gum-resin of Boswellia carterii, Boswellia frereana, Boswellia sacra, and Boswellia serrata showed that they are moderate to potent inhibitors of CYP enzymes, with equal potency for inhibiting the major drug metabolizing enzymes 1A2/2C8/2C9/2C19/2D6 and 3A4.25
  • Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that, in comparison to boswellic acids lacking a keto group, concentrations of 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (KBA) and acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) are much lower in plasma after oral administration than in the extract.45 In vitro studies showed that keto-boswellic acids inhibit the transport activity of P-glycoprotein, which may impact its absorption through the intestinal wall. The investigator concluded that, based on these findings, there is a possibility the effects of boswellic acid on P-glycoprotein might impact the transport and absorption of other agents as well.
  • The LD50 of orally- or intraperitoneally-administered boswellic acid in rats is >2g/kg. Studies monitoring the effects of high doses in rabbits over a three-month period and in monkeys and rats over a six-month period revealed no toxic effects.46,32,27 However, hepatotoxic effects, with pronounced hepatomegaly and steatosis, were observed in mice given high doses of Boswellia serrata.2
  • Pentacylic triterpene boswellic acids from Boswellia serrata Roxb. inhibited leukotriene B4 and C4 biosynthesis in intact PMNs.17 Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid induced inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase product formation non-competitively and reversibly.
  • After administration of Boswellia serrata extract, 11-keto β-boswellic acid can be monitored in human plasma.26

  1. Ammon, H. P. Boswellic acids in chronic inflammatory diseases. Planta Med 2006;72(12):1100-1116. 17024588
  2. Kiela, P. R., Midura, A. J., Kuscuoglu, N., Jolad, S. D., Solyom, A. M., Besselsen, D. G., Timmermann, B. N., and Ghishan, F. K. Effects of Boswellia serrata in mouse models of chemically induced colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest.Liver Physiol 2005;288(4):G798-G808. 15539433
  3. Ammon, H. P. [Boswellic acids (components of frankincense) as the active principle in treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases]. Wien Med Wochenschr 2002;152(15-16):373-378. 12244881
  4. Gupta, I., Parihar, A., Malhotra, P., Singh, G. B., Ludtke, R., Safayhi, H., and Ammon, H. P. Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with ulcerative colitis. Eur J Med Res 1997;2(1):37-43. 9049593
  5. Hostanska, K., Daum, G., and Saller, R. Cytostatic and apoptosis-inducing activity of boswellic acids toward malignant cell lines in vitro. Anticancer Res 2002;22(5):2853-2862. 12530009
  6. Liu, X. and Qi, Z. H. [Experimental study on Jurkat cell apoptosis induced by Boswellia carterii Birdw extractive]. Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 6-28-2000;25(3):241-244. 12212153
  7. Zhao, W., Entschladen, F., Liu, H., Niggemann, B., Fang, Q., Zaenker, K. S., and Han, R. Boswellic acid acetate induces differentiation and apoptosis in highly metastatic melanoma and fibrosarcoma cells. Cancer Detect Prev 2003;27(1):67-75. 12600419
  8. Liu, J. J., Nilsson, A., Oredsson, S., Badmaev, V., Zhao, W. Z., and Duan, R. D. Boswellic acids trigger apoptosis via a pathway dependent on caspase-8 activation but independent on Fas/Fas ligand interaction in colon cancer HT-29 cells. Carcinogenesis 2002;23(12):2087-2093. 12507932
  9. Menon, M. K. and Kar, A. Analgesic and psychopharmacological effects of the gum resin of Boswellia serrata. Planta Med 1971;19(4):333-341. 5573545
  10. Mothana, R. A. and Lindequist, U. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants of the island Soqotra. J Ethnopharmacol 1-4-2005;96(1-2):177-181. 15588668
  11. Ammon, H. P., Mack, T., Singh, G. B., and Safayhi, H. Inhibition of leukotriene B4 formation in rat peritoneal neutrophils by an ethanolic extract of the gum resin exudate of Boswellia serrata. Planta Med 1991;57(3):203-207. 1654575
  12. Ammon, H. P. Salai Guggal - Boswellia serrata: from a herbal medicine to a non-redox inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis. Eur J Med Res 5-24-1996;1(8):369-370. 9360935
  13. Gayathri, B., Manjula, N., Vinaykumar, K. S., Lakshmi, B. S., and Balakrishnan, A. Pure compound from Boswellia serrata extract exhibits anti-inflammatory property in human PBMCs and mouse macrophages through inhibition of TNFalpha, IL-1beta, NO and MAP kinases. Int Immunopharmacol 2007;7(4):473-482. 17321470
  14. Poeckel, D. and Werz, O. Boswellic acids: biological actions and molecular targets. Curr Med Chem 2006;13(28):3359-3369. 17168710
  15. Roy, S., Khanna, S., Krishnaraju, A. V., Subbaraju, G. V., Yasmin, T., Bagchi, D., and Sen, C. K. Regulation of vascular responses to inflammation: inducible matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in human microvascular endothelial cells is sensitive to antiinflammatory Boswellia. Antioxid Redox Signal 2006;8(3-4):653-660. 16677108
  16. Safayhi H, Mack T, Sabieraj J, and et al. Boswellic acids: novel, specific, nonredox inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase. J Pharm Exper Ther 1992;261(3):1143-1146.
  17. Wildfeuer, A., Neu, I. S., Safayhi, H., Metzger, G., Wehrmann, M., Vogel, U., and Ammon, H. P. Effects of boswellic acids extracted from a herbal medicine on the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Arzneimittelforschung 1998;48(6):668-674. 9689425
  18. Takada, Y., Ichikawa, H., Badmaev, V., and Aggarwal, B. B. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid potentiates apoptosis, inhibits invasion, and abolishes osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NF-kappa B and NF-kappa B-regulated gene expression. J Immunol 3-1-2006;176(5):3127-3140. 16493072
  19. Akihisa, T., Tabata, K., Banno, N., Tokuda, H., Nishimura, R., Nakamura, Y., Kimura, Y., Yasukawa, K., and Suzuki, T. Cancer chemopreventive effects and cytotoxic activities of the triterpene acids from the resin of Boswellia carteri. Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29(9):1976-1979. 16946522
  20. Atal CK, Gupta OP, and Singh GB. Salai guggal: a promising anti-arthritic and anti-hyperlipidemic agent. Proc BPS 1981;203P-204P.
  21. Mikhaeil, B. R., Maatooq, G. T., Badria, F. A., and Amer, M. M. Chemistry and immunomodulatory activity of frankincense oil. Z Naturforsch [C] 2003;58(3-4):230-238. 12710734
  22. Altmann, A., Poeckel, D., Fischer, L., Schubert-Zsilavecz, M., Steinhilber, D., and Werz, O. Coupling of boswellic acid-induced Ca2+ mobilisation and MAPK activation to lipid metabolism and peroxide formation in human leucocytes. Br J Pharmacol 2004;141(2):223-232. 14691050
  23. Park, Y. S., Lee, J. H., Harwalkar, J. A., Bondar, J., Safayhi, H., and Golubic, M. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) is cytotoxic for meningioma cells and inhibits phosphorylation of the extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1 and 2. Adv Exp Med Biol 2002;507:387-393. 12664615
  24. Sharma, S., Thawani, V., Hingorani, L., Shrivastava, M., Bhate, V. R., and Khiyani, R. Pharmacokinetic study of 11-Keto beta-Boswellic acid. Phytomedicine 2004;11(2-3):255-260. 15070181
  25. Frank, A. and Unger, M. Analysis of frankincense from various Boswellia species with inhibitory activity on human drug metabolising cytochrome P450 enzymes using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry after automated on-line extraction. J Chromatogr A 4-21-2006;1112(1-2):255-262. 16364338
  26. Shah, S. A., Rathod, I. S., Suhagia, B. N., Patel, D. A., Parmar, V. K., Shah, B. K., and Vaishnavi, V. M. Estimation of boswellic acids from market formulations of Boswellia serrata extract and 11-keto beta-boswellic acid in human plasma by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 4-1-2007;848(2):232-238. 17101304
  27. Singh, G. B. and Atal, C. K. Pharmacology of an extract of salai guggal ex-Boswellia serrata, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. Agents Actions 1986;18(3-4):407-412. 3751752
  28. Buchele, B. and Simmet, T. Analysis of 12 different pentacyclic triterpenic acids from frankincense in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 10-5-2003;795(2):355-362. 14522040
  29. Buchele, B., Zugmaier, W., and Simmet, T. Analysis of pentacyclic triterpenic acids from frankincense gum resins and related phytopharmaceuticals by high-performance liquid chromatography. Identification of lupeolic acid, a novel pentacyclic triterpene. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 7-5-2003;791(1-2):21-30. 12798161
  30. Knaus U and Wagner H. Effects of Boswellic acid of Boswellia serrata and other triterpenic acids on the Complement System. Phytomedicine 1996;3(1):77-80.
  31. Sharma, M. L., Bani, S., and Singh, G. B. Anti-arthritic activity of boswellic acids in bovine serum albumin (BSA)-induced arthritis. Int J Immunopharmacol 1989;11(6):647-652. 2807636
  32. Singh GB, Singh S, and Bani S. Anti-inflammatory actions of boswellic acids. Phytomed 1996;3(1):81-85.
  33. Roy, S., Khanna, S., Shah, H., Rink, C., Phillips, C., Preuss, H., Subbaraju, G. V., Trimurtulu, G., Krishnaraju, A. V., Bagchi, M., Bagchi, D., and Sen, C. K. Human genome screen to identify the genetic basis of the anti-inflammatory effects of Boswellia in microvascular endothelial cells. DNA Cell Biol 2005;24(4):244-255. 15812241
  34. Buchele, B., Zugmaier, W., Estrada, A., Genze, F., Syrovets, T., Paetz, C., Schneider, B., and Simmet, T. Characterization of 3alpha-acetyl-11-keto-alpha-boswellic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Planta Med 2006;72(14):1285-1289. 17022003
  35. Park, Y. S., Lee, J. H., Bondar, J., Harwalkar, J. A., Safayhi, H., and Golubic, M. Cytotoxic action of acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) on meningioma cells. Planta Med 2002;68(5):397-401. 12058313
  36. Xia, L., Chen, D., Han, R., Fang, Q., Waxman, S., and Jing, Y. Boswellic acid acetate induces apoptosis through caspase-mediated pathways in myeloid leukemia cells. Mol Cancer Ther 2005;4(3):381-388. 15767547
  37. Safayhi H, Sailer ER, and Amnon HP. 5-lipoxygenase inhibition by acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) by a novel mechanism. Phytomed 1996;3(1):71-72.
  38. Reddy, G. K., Chandrakasan, G., and Dhar, S. C. Studies on the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans under the influence of new herbal anti-inflammatory agents. Biochem Pharmacol 10-15-1989;38(20):3527-3534. 2818645
  39. Sterk, V., Buchele, B., and Simmet, T. Effect of food intake on the bioavailability of boswellic acids from a herbal preparation in healthy volunteers. Planta Med 2004;70(12):1155-1160. 15643550
  40. Badria, F. A., Mikhaeil, B. R., Maatooq, G. T., and Amer, M. M. Immunomodulatory triterpenoids from the oleogum resin of Boswellia carterii Birdwood. Z Naturforsch [C] 2003;58(7-8):505-516. 12939036
  41. Ammon, H. P., Safayhi, H., Mack, T., and Sabieraj, J. Mechanism of antiinflammatory actions of curcumine and boswellic acids. J Ethnopharmacol 1993;38(2-3):113-119. 8510458
  42. Schweizer, S., von Brocke, A. F., Boden, S. E., Bayer, E., Ammon, H. P., and Safayhi, H. Workup-dependent formation of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory boswellic acid analogues. J Nat Prod 2000;63(8):1058-1061. 10978197
  43. Kesava, Reddy G. and Dhar, S. C. Effect of a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent on lysosomal stability in adjuvant induced arthritis. Ital J Biochem 1987;36(4):205-217. 3429205
  44. Kesava, Reddy G., Dhar, S. C., and Singh, G. B. Urinary excretion of connective tissue metabolites under the influence of a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent in adjuvant induced arthritis. Agents Actions 1987;22(1-2):99-105. 3687602
  45. Weber, C. C., Reising, K., Muller, W. E., Schubert-Zsilavecz, M., and Abdel-Tawab, M. Modulation of Pgp function by boswellic acids. Planta Med 2006;72(6):507-513. 16773534
  46. Singh GB, Singh S, and Bani S. Alcoholic extract of salai-guggal ex-Boswellia serrata, a new natural source NSAID. Drugs Today 1996;32(2):109-112.

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