Plant Profiler

Propolis (Propolis)

Propolis (Propolis) Image
Synonyms / Common Names / Related Terms
Apis mellifera L., bee glue, bee propolis, bee putty, Bienenharz (German), Brazilian green propolis, Brazilian propolis, Bulgarian propolis, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, CAPE, cera alba, chizukit, cinnamic acid, flavonoids, galangin, Greek propolis, hive dross, Propolin H, propolis balsam, propolis resin, propolis wax, propolisina (Spanish), Russian penicillin, Taiwanese propolis, terpenes, WSDP.

Combination product example: Chizukit (preparation containing echinacea, propolis, and vitamin C).

Mechanism of Action


  • Constituents: Propolis composition is considered to be highly variable and dependent on the plant species from which it is collected as well as the season and geographical location in which it is harvested.1,16 Propolis extracts have been found to contain amino acids, phenolic acids, phenolic acid esters, flavonoids, cinnamic acid, cumaric acid, terpenes, hesperatin, nicotinic acid, and caffeic acid.19,8,30,1,20,31 Propolis also contains resins, balsams, essential oils, vitamins, minerals and pollen1, propolin H24, polyphenols, phenolic aldehydes, sequiterpene quinines, coumarins, steroids16, and phenylpropanoids (PPs)20. Propolis of Brazilian origin is reported to be composed mainly of artepillin C and its constituents have been found to be different from those of propolis of European origin.32 Two prenylflavanones, propolin A and propolin B, have been isolated and characterized from Taiwanese propolis.33
  • Anti-inflammatory effects: There is preliminary in vitro and in vivo evidence that propolis suppresses the lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism and decreases the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes involved in inflammation.22,21,19 Propolis has also demonstrated free radical-scavenging properties, and to a lesser extent, activity against the generation of superoxides.34,35,5 Propolis may inhibit cellular apoptosis via effects on glutathione (GSH) and TNF-kappa B in macrophages.36,6 Anticomplement activities of lysine complexes of propolis' phenolic constituents have been demonstrated in vitro.37 In a prospective, open human trial in 10 healthy subjects, Propolis XNP 500mg over 13 days did not significantly alter plasma cytokine levels.38 Topical application of a 3%-7% propolis extract may be effective in inhibiting carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema, and its inhibitory effect on the chemotaxis of PMNs may also contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect observed.2 The anti-inflammatory effect of a standard ethanol extract G1 from Brazilian green propolis may be a due to inhibition of iNOS gene expression, through interference with NF-kappaB sites in the iNOS promoter.3
  • Antimicrobial properties: Propolis contains flavonoids including pinocembrin, galangin, pinobanksin, and pinobanksin-3-acetate, which are thought to be responsible for antimicrobial effects. Laboratory studies have shown antibacterial effects against Enterococcus faecalis 39, Clostridium, Bacteroides and Propionibacterium species14, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pyogenes4, and Helicobacter pylori strains23. Propolis extracts that contain the constituents pinocembrin and galangin have been shown to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, an organism that causes dental caries. In vitro studies have shown propolis to inhibit bacterial growth by disrupting the cell wall, the cytoplasmic membrane, and the cytoplasm, causing a partial bacteriolysis and inhibition of cellular protein synthesis40,41 Other in vitro experiments have demonstrated activity against Gram-positive bacteria.42,43,44,45,46,47 However, in an experiment designed to measure induction of resistance, Scheller et al. found that out of 62 strains of Streptococcus aureus isolated from various sources, approximately 90% showed either initial reduced sensitivity or complete resistance to propolis, regardless of the concentration of the ethanol extract of propolis used.46 The in vitro antiviral activity of propolis has been attributed to a synergistic action of both flavonoid and flavanol components in propolis.19 Studies evaluating the efficacy of isolated constituents have demonstrated minimal effectiveness compared to the natural compound.48 Propolis has also been found to inhibit oral candidiasis.49 In an in vitro study, an ethanolic extract of propolis was shown to inhibit growth and adherence of Giardia duodenalis trophozoites.50 The level of inhibition varied according to the extract concentration and incubation times. The highest reduction of parasite growth was observed in cultures exposed to 125, 250 and 500mcg/mL of propolis, in all incubation periods (24, 48, 72, and 96 h). Growth reduction by 50% was observed in 125mcg/mL propolis-treated cultures, while the concentrations of 250 and 500mcg/mL were able to inhibit growth by more than 60%. Propolis also promoted the detachment of trophozoites. Light microscope observations revealed changes of the pear-shaped aspect of the cell and reduction of flagellar beating frequency in the great part of the trophozoites. In vitro, propolis has been shown to be cytotoxic for Candida albicans; though it did appear to affect epithelial cell adhesion, propolis appeared to inhibit other virulence factors of Candida albicans such as yeast-mycelial conversion (Y-M) and phospholipase activity in a dose-dependent manner.10 Additional laboratory study confirmed that propolis extract showed antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida albicans at a concentration of 5 x 10(-2)mg/mL of flavonoids; a concentration of 2 x 10(-2)mg/mL of flavonoids stimulated their cellular death.51 Additional in vitro studies have confirmed the antifungal effects of propolis as well.52
  • Antineoplastic properties: Numerous studies have been conducted investigating the antiproliferative effects of propolis. In vitro cytotoxicity against human fibrosarcoma, human lung carcinoma, and murine colon carcinoma cells has been demonstrated by propolis and attributed to its benzofuran derivatives.53,9,10,54 Other constituents such as artepillin C and diethyl ether have demonstrated cytostatic activity against myeloid cell lines.32,55,11 Significant results have been seen against T-cell lines.11 The propolis constituent galangin has been found to possess anti-genotoxic activity in vitro.56,34 Chilean propolis has been shown to produce antiproliferative properties, which are correlated with its chemical composition and expressed by its capacity to scavenge free radicals and to inhibit tumor cell growth.57 In an in vitro study, two prenylflavanones, propolin A and propolin B, isolated and characterized from Taiwanese propolis, induced cytotoxicity in human melanoma A2058 cells and showed a strong capability to scavenge free radicals.33 The findings suggest that propolin A and propolin B may activate a mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, in an in vitro study, the compound 2-hydroxy-3-(1,1-dimethylallyl)acetophenone showed significant selective cytotoxic activity (IC50 < 9mcgg/mL).58 In another in vitro study, results suggested that chemotherapy based on resveratrol and propolis, alone or in combination with vinorelbine, may be a potentially useful tool for prostate cancer therapy. The authors concluded that the increase in cell cycle control and the modulation of HSPs expression reinforce this suggestion.59 Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, has been implicated in the regulation of cell growth and apoptosis, although the exact mechanism of this activity has not been elucidated.12 All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces complete remission in a high proportion of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL); however, the response is sometimes very slow.25 It is suggested that CAPE possesses the potential to enhance the efficiency of ATRA in the differentiation therapy of APL. In an in vitro study, results showed that the drastic activation of HO-1 gene by CAPE and caffeic acid ethyl ester (CAEE) is dependent upon their chemical structures, rather than the reductive activity of polyphenols.27 Furthermore, the effects of a propolis extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction and CAPE on sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents were examined in HeLa cells and resistant sublines.26 In HeLa cells, the sensitivity to paclitaxel and doxorubicin, substrates of MDR1, was unchanged in the presence of propolis. In HeLa/TXL cells, propolis increased sensitivity to these MDR1 substrates. The authors suggested that the extract inhibited the function of MDR1 and increased the sensitivity to MDR1 substrates in HeLa/TXL cells. In a cytotoxicity assay of CAPE in CT26 colon adenocarcinoma cells, a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability was observed, but no significant influence on the growth of human umbilical vein epithelial cells (HUVEC) was observed. A low concentration of CAPE (1.5mcg/mL) inhibited 52.7% of capillary-like tube formation in HUVEC culture on Matrigel. CAPE (6mcg/mL)-treated CT26 cells showed not only inhibited cell invasion by 47.8%, but also decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production from CT26 cells was also inhibited by treatment with CAPE (6mcg/mL). Intraperitoneal injection of CAPE (10mg/kg per day) in BALB/c mice reduced the pulmonary metastatic capacity of CT26 cells accompanied with a decreased plasma VEGF level. CAPE treatment also prolonged the survival of mice implanted with CT26 cells. These results indicate that CAPE has potential as an antimetastatic agent.60 The antitumor activity of a water-soluble derivative of propolis, caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, and quercetin may be related to the immunomodulatory properties of the compounds, their cytotoxicity to tumor cells, and their capacity to induce apoptosis and necrosis.61 In an in vitro study, propolin H, isolated from propolis, was found to inhibit the proliferation of human lung carcinoma cell lines.24 These findings suggest that the induction of p21Waf1/Cip1 expression occurred through p53-dependent and independent pathways in propolin H-treated cells.
  • Antioxidant properties: Chilean propolis has been shown to produce antioxidant properties, which are correlated with its chemical composition and expressed by its capacity to scavenge free radicals and to inhibit tumor cell growth.57 Propolis has also been studied for antiradical properties to protect food from oxidation.62 Based on in vivo study, daily intake of powdered propolis extract may be time and gender related.63 For men, after the initial 15 days of propolis treatment, a 23.2% (p=0.005) decrease in concentration of malondialdehyde was observed. After 30 days of treatment, a statistically significant (p=0.010) 20.9% increase in superoxide dismutase activity and a change in some of the red blood cell parameters were detected. For the women test group, the propolis treatment did not induce a change in any of the measured parameters. It has also been suggested that the potential antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of propolis may be due to the action of phenylpropanoid constituents.20
  • Antiplatelet effects: A laboratory study examined the inhibitory mechanisms of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), derived from propolis, in platelet activation.8 CAPE (15 and 25mcM) was found to markedly inhibit platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen (2 mcg/mL). Since CAPE is involved in various inhibitory pathways of platelet aggregation, the authors concluded that propolis may be a potent antiplatelet agent.
  • Anti-viral effects: Propolis has been shown to contain compounds that prevent HIV-1 accessory protein Nef-mediated cell lysis and increase proliferation of CD4 cells in HIV-infected cultures.28
  • Epithelial repair: Topically, propolis has been reported to accelerate epithelial repair after tooth extraction in animal models.64
  • Fertility protective effects: In an in vitro study, a Chilean propolis ethanolic extract was able to protect human spermatozoa genomic DNA by damage induced by benzo[a]pyrene, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydrogen peroxide in combination with adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4).18 The propolis extract studied was shown to protect sperm membranes from oxidative attack, via reducing TBARS formation and LDH release. The authors concluded that the protective effect of propolis in human spermatozoa may be correlated with antioxidant capacity and suggested that propolis may protect against male infertility.
  • Immunomodulatory effects: In an animal study, the immunomodulatory actions of a water-soluble derivative of propolis (WSDP) and two components of propolis, caffeic acid (CA) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) were investigated.7 Oral administration (50mg/kg) of WSDP, CA, and CAPE enhanced the weight and cellularity of the spleen (p<0.05, p<0.01) of treated mice. The response of spleen cells to polyclonal mitogens was also increased in mice treated with WSDP as compared to control (p<0.01); in contrast, the response of spleen cells of mice treated with CA were significantly suppressed (p<0.001). Antitumor activity of the propolis compounds tested may be due to immunomodulatory actions, specifically augmentation of non-specific antitumor resistance in mice via macrophage activation and production of soluble factors interfering with tumor cells. In immunocompetent mice infected with Giardia lamblia trophozoites, propolis as a prophylaxis showed a significant decrease in intensity of infection and a significant increase in IF-gamma serum level and increase in CD4+: CD8+T-cell ratio.17 The propolis treatment caused a highly significant decrease in trophozoite count than that obtained by metronidazole (MTZ) six days after infection; however, the efficacy was almost equal after 12 days. The mice treated with propolis alone showed a reversed CD4+: CD8+ T-lymphocyte ratio; the authors noted that the strong immune-enhancing effect resulted in an undesirable increase in inflammatory response at the intestinal level. The combined propolis and metronidazole (MTZ) therapy showed a stronger efficacy in reducing the parasite count than that gained by each agent alone and caused an immunological balance as shown by the T-lymphocyte profile.
  • Osteoporosis preventative effects: Propolis has been reported to contain trace amounts of ipriflavone, an isoflavone with purported efficacy in the prevention of osteoporosis. However, it is not clear if the presence of ipriflavone in propolis is of clinical significance.
  • Periodontal effects: In an in vitro study, results showed that 10% propolis solution was an effective storage medium for the maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability of avulsed teeth.15 In an in vitro study, propolis caused some reduction in malodor production from the incubated whole saliva.65
  • Radioprotective effects: In animal studies, the radioprotector effect of propolis has been attributed to its free-radical scavenging properties.13 In an in vitro study examining the protective properties of propolis extract against DNA damage induced by gamma irradiation, a decrease in the radiation-induced chromosome aberrations has been observed to be higher than 50% for all the doses.


  • Literature review reveals scant evidence regarding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or elimination of propolis either topically or orally. The flavonoids, many of which are found in propolis, are known to exhibit a wide range of solubility. In natural propolis, flavonoids exist as glycosides. Animal studies have found that byproducts of flavonoid metabolism do not accumulate in the body and are renally excreted.66
  • The in vitro biochemical stability of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in rat and human plasma was investigated and compared with the stability of other caffeic acid esters (chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid).67 The results suggested that caffeic acid phenethyl ester is hydrolyzed also in vivo to caffeic acid as the major metabolite and that its biological activities should be more properly assayed and compared with those of caffeic acid, its bioactive hydrolysis product. The authors concluded that alcohols should be carefully used in vivo as solvents for caffeic acid phenethyl ester because they may give rise to new bioactive caffeic acid esters.
  • In samples of whole blood of male Wistar rats incubated in sequence with an aqueous propolis extract at different concentrations, stannous chloride and 99mTc, as sodium pertechnetate, the aqueous propolis extract significantly decreased the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in plasma proteins at the higher concentration studied.29 The results suggested that at high concentration, the constituents of propolis extracts may alter the labeling of plasma proteins competing with same binding sites of the 99mTc on the plasma proteins or acting as antioxidant compounds.
  • Pharmacodynamics: In an in vitro study, prenyl compounds from propolis were tested for their cytotoxicity toward a diverse panel of cultured human tumor cell lines.58 The compound 2-hydroxy-3-(1,1-dimethylallyl)acetophenone showed significant selective cytotoxic activity (IC50 <9mcg/mL).
  • In an in vitro study, a propolis extract showed antifungal activity against 67 yeasts (Candida parapsilosis 35%, C. tropicalis 23%, C. albicans 13%, and other species 29%) isolated from onychomycosis in patients: the concentration capable of inhibiting the all of the yeasts was 5 x 10(-2)mg/mL of flavonoids, and 2 x 10(-2)mg/mL of flavonoids stimulated their cellular death. Trichosporon sp. were the most sensitive species, showing MIC50 and MIC90 of 1.25 x 10(-2)mg/mL of flavonoids, and C. tropicalis was the most resistant, with CFM50 of 5 x 10(-2)mg/mL of flavonoids and MFC90 of 10 x 10(-2)mg/mL.
  • Caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE), a component of propolis, as well as other derivatives of caffeic acid, up-regulated the expression of reporter gene for retinoic acid receptors (RARs).68


  1. De Vecchi, E. and Drago, L. [Propolis' antimicrobial activity: what's new?]. Infez Med 2007;15(1):7-15. 17515670
  2. Naito, Y., Yasumuro, M., Kondou, K., and Ohara, N. Antiinflammatory effect of topically applied propolis extract in carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema. Phytother Res 2007;21(5):452-456. 17262890
  3. Paulino, N., Teixeira, C., Martins, R., Scremin, A., Dirsch, V. M., Vollmar, A. M., Abreu, S. R., de Castro, S. L., and Marcucci, M. C. Evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of a Brazilian green propolis. Planta Med 2006;72(10):899-906. 16902858
  4. Speciale, A., Costanzo, R., Puglisi, S., Musumeci, R., Catania, M. R., Caccamo, F., and Iauk, L. Antibacterial activity of propolis and its active principles alone and in combination with macrolides, beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones against microorganisms responsible for respiratory infections. J Chemother  2006;18(2):164-171. 16736885
  5. Scheller, S., Wilczok, T., Imielski, S., and et al. Free radical scavenging by ethanol extract of propolis. Int J Radiat.Biol. 1990;57(3):461-465. 1968939
  6. Pascual, C., Gonzalez, R., and Torricella, R. G. Scavenging action of propolis extract against oxygen radicals. J Ethnopharmacol  1994;41(1-2):9-13. 8170165
  7. Orsolic, N., Saranovic, A. B., and Basic, I. Direct and indirect mechanism(s) of antitumour activity of propolis and its polyphenolic compounds. Planta Med 2006;72(1):20-27. 16450291
  8. Chen, T. G., Lee, J. J., Lin, K. H., Shen, C. H., Chou, D. S., and Sheu, J. R. Antiplatelet activity of caffeic acid phenethyl ester is mediated through a cyclic GMP-dependent pathway in human platelets. Chin J Physiol 6-30-2007;50(3):121-126. 17867432
  9. Banskota, A. H., Tezuka, Y., Midorikawa, K., Matsushige, K., and Kadota, S. Two novel cytotoxic benzofuran derivatives from Brazilian propolis. J Nat Prod  2000;63(9):1277-1279. 11000036
  10. Banskota, A. H., Tezuka, Y., Adnyana, I. K., and et al. Cytotoxic, hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging effects of propolis from Brazil, Peru, the Netherlands and China. J Ethnopharmacol  2000;72(1-2):239-246. 10967477
  11. Kimoto, T., Aga, M., Hino, K., and Apoptosis of human leukemia cells induced by Artepillin C, an active ingredient of Brazilian propolis. Anticancer Res 2001;21(1A):221-228. 11299738
  12. Xiang, D., Wang, D., He, Y., Xie, J., Zhong, Z., Li, Z., and Xie, J. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induces growth arrest and apoptosis of colon cancer cells via the beta-catenin/T-cell factor signaling. Anticancer Drugs 2006;17(7):753-762. 16926625
  13. Montoro, A., Almonacid, M., Serrano, J., Saiz, M., Barquinero, J. F., Barrios, L., Verdu, G., Perez, J., and Villaescusa, J. I. Assessment by cytogenetic analysis of the radioprotection properties of propolis extract. Radiat Prot Dosimetry  2005;115(1-4):461-464. 16381767
  14. Boyanova, L., Kolarov, R., Gergova, G., and Mitov, I. In vitro activity of Bulgarian propolis against 94 clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobe  2006;12(4):173-177. 16919977
  15. Ozan, F., Polat, Z. A., Er, K., Ozan, U., and Deger, O. Effect of propolis on survival of periodontal ligament cells: new storage media for avulsed teeth. J Endod  2007;33(5):570-573. 17437874
  16. Khalil, M. L. Biological activity of bee propolis in health and disease. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev  2006;7(1):22-31. 16629510
  17. Abdel-Fattah, N. S. and Nada, O. H. Effect of propolis versus metronidazole and their combined use in treatment of acute experimental giardiasis. J Egypt Soc Parasitol  2007;37(2 Suppl):691-710. 17926808
  18. Russo, A., Troncoso, N., Sanchez, F., Garbarino, J. A., and Vanella, A. Propolis protects human spermatozoa from DNA damage caused by benzo[a]pyrene and exogenous reactive oxygen species. Life Sci 2-23-2006;78(13):1401-1406. 16457855
  19. Cardile, V., Panico, A., Gentile, B., Borrelli, F., and Russo, A. Effect of propolis on human cartilage and chondrocytes. Life Sci  7-11-2003;73(8):1027-1035. 12818355
  20. Korkina, L. G. Phenylpropanoids as naturally occurring antioxidants: from plant defense to human health. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2007;53(1):15-25. 17519109
  21. Mirzoeva, O. K. and Calder, P. C. The effect of propolis and its components on eicosanoid production during the inflammatory response. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1996;55(6):441-449. 9014224
  22. Volpert, R. and Elstner, E. F. Interactions of different extracts of propolis with leukocytes and leukocytic enzymes. Arzneimittelforschung 1996;46(1):47-51. 8821517
  23. Nostro, A., Cellini, L., Di Bartolomeo, S., Cannatelli, M. A., Di Campli, E., Procopio, F., Grande, R., Marzio, L., and Alonzo, V. Effects of combining extracts (from propolis or Zingiber officinale) with clarithromycin on Helicobacter pylori. Phytother Res 2006;20(3):187-190. 16521108
  24. Weng, M. S., Liao, C. H., Chen, C. N., Wu, C. L., and Lin, J. K. Propolin H from Taiwanese propolis induces G1 arrest in human lung carcinoma cells. J Agric Food Chem 6-27-2007;55(13):5289-5298. 17530771
  25. Kuo, H. C., Kuo, W. H., Lee, Y. J., Wang, C. J., and Tseng, T. H. Enhancement of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 10-1-2006;216(1):80-88. 16766008
  26. Takara, K., Fujita, M., Matsubara, M., Minegaki, T., Kitada, N., Ohnishi, N., and Yokoyama, T. Effects of propolis extract on sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents in HeLa and resistant sublines. Phytother Res 2007;21(9):841-846. 17486684
  27. Suzuki, K., Tanaka, I., Nakanishi, I., Kurematsu, A., Yakumaru, H., Ikota, N., and Ishihara, H. Drastic effect of several caffeic acid derivatives on the induction of heme oxygenase-1 expression revealed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Biofactors 2006;28(3-4):151-158. 17473375
  28. Azad, A. A. Novel drugs and vaccines based on the structure and function of HIV pathogenic proteins including Nef. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2005;1056:279-292. 16387695
  29. Jesus, L. M., Abreu, P. R., Almeida, M. C., Brito, L. C., Soares, S. F., de Souza, D. E., Bernardo, L. C., Fonseca, A. S., and Bernardo-Filho, M. A propolis extract and the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m. Acta Biol Hung 2006;57(2):191-200. 16841470
  30. Cushnie, T. P. and Lamb, A. J. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2005;26(5):343-356. 16323269
  31. Lu, Y., Wu, C., and Yuan, Z. Determination of hesperetin, cinnamic acid and nicotinic acid in propolis with micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Fitoterapia 2004;75(3-4):267-276. 15158983
  32. Ahn, M. R., Kunimasa, K., Ohta, T., Kumazawa, S., Kamihira, M., Kaji, K., Uto, Y., Hori, H., Nagasawa, H., and Nakayama, T. Suppression of tumor-induced angiogenesis by Brazilian propolis: major component artepillin C inhibits in vitro tube formation and endothelial cell proliferation. Cancer Lett 7-18-2007;252(2):235-243. 17343983
  33. Chen, C. N., Wu, C. L., and Lin, J. K. Apoptosis of human melanoma cells induced by the novel compounds propolin A and propolin B from Taiwenese propolis. Cancer Lett 1-8-2007;245(1-2):218-231. 16516378
  34. Heo, M. Y., Sohn, S. J., and Au, W. W. Anti-genotoxicity of galangin as a cancer chemopreventive agent candidate. Mutat Res 2001;488(2):135-150. 11344041
  35. Scheller, S., Gazda, G., Krol, W., and et al. The ability of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) to protect mice against gamma irradiation. Z Naturforsch [C] 1989;44(11-12):1049-1052. 2698623
  36. Claus, R., Kinscherf, R., Gehrke, C., and et al. Antiapoptotic effects of propolis extract and propol on human macrophages exposed to minimally modified low density lipoprotein. Arzneimittelforschung 2000;50(4):373-379. 10800636
  37. Georgieva, P., Ivanovska, N., Bankova, V., and et al. Anticomplement activity of lysine complexes of propolis phenolic constituents and their synthetic analogs. Z Naturforsch [C] 1997;52(1-2):60-64. 9090067
  38. Bratter, C., Tregel, M., Liebenthal, C., and et al. [Prophylactic effectiveness of propolis for immunostimulation: a clinical pilot study]. Forsch Komplementarmed  1999;6(5):256-260. 10575279
  39. Oncag, O., Cogulu, D., Uzel, A., and Sorkun, K. Efficacy of propolis as an intracanal medicament against Enterococcus faecalis. Gen Dent 2006;54(5):319-322. 17004565
  40. Metzner, J., Bekemeier, H., Paintz, M., and et al. [On the antimicrobial activity of propolis and propolis constituents (author's transl)]. Pharmazie 1979;34(2):97-102. 108687
  41. Takaisi-Kikuni, N. B. and Schilcher, H. Electron microscopic and microcalorimetric investigations of the possible mechanism of the antibacterial action of a defined propolis provenance. Planta Med 1994;60(3):222-227. 8073087
  42. Bankova, V., Marcucci, M. C., Simova, S., and et al. Antibacterial diterpenic acids from Brazilian propolis. Z Naturforsch [C] 1996;51(5-6):277-280. 8663896
  43. Bosio, K., Avanzini, C., D'Avolio, A., and et al. In vitro activity of propolis against Streptococcus pyogenes. Lett Appl Microbiol  2000;31(2):174-177. 10972723
  44. Grange, J. M. and Davey, R. W. Antibacterial properties of propolis (bee glue). J R.Soc Med 1990;83(3):159-160. 2182860
  45. Park, Y. K., Koo, M. H., Abreu, J. A., Ikegaki, M., Cury, J. A., and Rosalen, P. L. Antimicrobial activity of propolis on oral microorganisms. Curr Microbiol  1998;36(1):24-28. 9405742
  46. Scheller, S., Tustanowski, J., Kurylo, B., Paradowski, Z., and Obuszko, Z. Biological properties and clinical application of propolis. III. Investigation of the sensitivity of Staphylococci isolated from pathological cases to ethanol extract of propolis (EEP). Attempts on inducing resistance in laboratory Staphylococcus strain to EEP. Arzneimittelforschung 1977;27(7):1395. 578459
  47. Sforcin, J. M., Fernandes, A., Jr., and et al. Seasonal effect on Brazilian propolis antibacterial activity. J Ethnopharmacol  2000;73(1-2):243-249. 11025162
  48. Amoros, M., Simoes, C. M., Girre, L., Sauvager, F., and Cormier, M. Synergistic effect of flavones and flavonols against herpes simplex virus type 1 in cell culture. Comparison with the antiviral activity of propolis. J Nat Prod  1992;55(12):1732-1740. 1338212
  49. Santos, V. R., Pimenta, F. J., Aguiar, M. C., do Carmo, M. A., Naves, M. D., and Mesquita, R. A. Oral candidiasis treatment with Brazilian ethanol propolis extract. Phytother Res 2005;19(7):652-654. 16161031
  50. Freitas, S. F., Shinohara, L., Sforcin, J. M., and Guimaraes, S. In vitro effects of propolis on Giardia duodenalis trophozoites. Phytomedicine 2006;13(3):170-175. 16428024
  51. Oliveira, A. C., Shinobu, C. S., Longhini, R., Franco, S. L., and Svidzinski, T. I. Antifungal activity of propolis extract against yeasts isolated from onychomycosis lesions. Mem.Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2006;101(5):493-497. 17072451
  52. Silici, S. and Koc, A. N. Comparative study of in vitro methods to analyse the antifungal activity of propolis against yeasts isolated from patients with superficial mycoses. Lett Appl Microbiol  2006;43(3):318-324. 16910939
  53. Banskota, A. H., Tezuka, Y., Prasain, J. K., and et al. Chemical constituents of Brazilian propolis and their cytotoxic activities. J Nat Prod  1998;61(7):896-900. 9677271
  54. Hirota, M., Matsuno, T., Fujiwara, T., and et al. Enhanced cytotoxicity in a Z-photoisomer of a benzopyran derivative of propolis. J Nat Prod  2000;63(3):366-370. 10757720
  55. Hladon, B., Bylka, W., Ellnain-Wojtaszek, M., and et al. In vitro studies on the cytostatic activity of propolis extracts. Arzneimittelforschung 1980;30(11):1847-1848. 7192990
  56. Bestwick, C. S. and Milne, L. Influence of galangin on HL-60 cell proliferation and survival. Cancer Lett 11-8-2006;243(1):80-89. 16413113
  57. Russo, A., Cardile, V., Sanchez, F., Troncoso, N., Vanella, A., and Garbarino, J. A. Chilean propolis: antioxidant activity and antiproliferative action in human tumor cell lines. Life Sci  12-17-2004;76(5):545-558. 15556167
  58. Pisco, L., Kordian, M., Peseke, K., Feist, H., Michalik, D., Estrada, E., Carvalho, J., Hamilton, G., Rando, D., and Quincoces, J. Synthesis of compounds with antiproliferative activity as analogues of prenylated natural products existing in Brazilian propolis. Eur J Med Chem 2006;41(3):401-407. 16443308
  59. Scifo, C., Milasi, A., Guarnera, A., Sinatra, F., and Renis, M. Resveratrol and propolis extract: an insight into the morphological and molecular changes induced in DU145 cells. Oncol Res 2006;15(9):409-421. 16555547
  60. Liao, H. F., Chen, Y. Y., Liu, J. J., Hsu, M. L., Shieh, H. J., Liao, H. J., Shieh, C. J., Shiao, M. S., and Chen, Y. J. Inhibitory effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on angiogenesis, tumor invasion, and metastasis. J Agric Food Chem  12-31-2003;51(27):7907-7912. 14690372
  61. Orsolic, N., Knezevic, A. H., Sver, L., Terzic, S., and Basic, I. Immunomodulatory and antimetastatic action of propolis and related polyphenolic compounds. J Ethnopharmacol  2004;94(2-3):307-315. 15325736
  62. Sroka, Z. The screening analysis of antiradical activity of some plant extracts. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online) 2006;60:563-570. 17115006
  63. Jasprica, I., Mornar, A., Debeljak, Z., Smolcic-Bubalo, A., Medic-Saric, M., Mayer, L., Romic, Z., Bucan, K., Balog, T., Sobocanec, S., and Sverko, V. In vivo study of propolis supplementation effects on antioxidative status and red blood cells. J Ethnopharmacol 4-4-2007;110(3):548-554. 17113741
  64. Filho OM. and de Carvalho, A. C. Application of propolis to dental sockets and skin wounds. J Nihon Univ Sch Dent  1990;32(1):4-13. 2345377
  65. Sterer, N. and Rubinstein, Y. Effect of various natural medicinals on salivary protein putrefaction and malodor production. Quintessence Int 2006;37(8):653-658. 16922026
  66. Havsteen, B. Flavonoids, a class of natural products of high pharmacological potency. Biochem Pharmacol  4-1-1983;32(7):1141-1148. 6342623
  67. Celli, N., Dragani, L. K., Murzilli, S., Pagliani, T., and Poggi, A. In vitro and in vivo stability of caffeic acid phenethyl ester, a bioactive compound of propolis. J Agric Food Chem 5-2-2007;55(9):3398-3407. 17394337
  68. Suzuki, T., Nishimaki-Mogami, T., Kawai, H., Kobayashi, T., Shinozaki, Y., Sato, Y., Hashimoto, T., Asakawa, Y., Inoue, K., Ohno, Y., Hayakawa, T., and Kawanishi, T. Screening of novel nuclear receptor agonists by a convenient reporter gene assay system using green fluorescent protein derivatives. Phytomedicine 2006;13(6):401-411. 16716909

Licensed by Natural Standard Copyright © 2010 by Natural Standard Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

back to Plant Profiler
back to top