Lithium-Ion Batteries

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIB) were introduced in the early 1990s and quickly became the battery of choice in the electronics industry due to their combination of high energy and power density.1 In 2019, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to John B. Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham, and Akira Yoshino for the development of lithium-ion batteries. The integration of LIB into portable devices has undoubtedly revolutionized our world and has prompted an unprecedented push on the boundaries of high energy, power density, improved safety, and lower overall cost of these materials.

Battery Principles and Conventional Materials

The basic anatomy of a battery consists of electrodes (cathode (+) and anode (-)), a conductive electrolyte, and a separator between the anode and the cathode. In the case of LIB (Figure 1), monovalent lithium cations migrate between the electrodes. When discharging, the anode (-) oxidizes (loses electrons) and the cathode undergoes reduction (gain of electrons). Upon charging, this process is reversed.2–3

When choosing a cathode, not only do researchers need to consider electrochemical properties but also the performance and cost of the material. Conventional cathode materials generally fall under three structure types, layered, spinel, and olivine. Below we will highlight the most commonly used cathodes and their unique features.

LiCoO2 (LCO) (Cat. No. 442704), and the LiCoO2 and mixed metal analogs (Ni- and Al-substitutions), such as LiNiCoAlO2 (NCA) (Cat. No.760994), are currently the most widely used cathode materials because of superior properties and high-energy density. These materials, including the alternative isostructural compound LiNiO2 (Cat. No. 757365), adopt a layered rhombohedral structure.3 However, increased prices in cobalt have resulted in hybridization materials as well as cobalt-free alternatives.

Investigating the spinel cathode materials, LiMn2O4 (LMO) (Cat. Nos. 725129, 725110), and LiNiMnCoO2 (NMC) (Cat. No. 761001) are cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and have improved safety. Although these batteries have less capacity compared to LCO, these cathodes are suitable for large batteries, such as those found in electric vehicles.4 The olivine structures, such as LiFePO4 (LFP) (Cat. No. 759546), which often fall under the category of polyanion compounds, are thermally stable but have less power density as compared to the spinel cathode materials.5
The first anodes used in LIB were carbon, i.e. graphite, (Cat. No. 496588) and is still often used today as they have low working potential, high cycle life, and low cycle life.6 Limitations of graphite include a low capacity and moderate power densities, since six carbons are required to bind one lithium-ion. Other anodes that have recently been explored are graphene and mixed graphene materials, such as Fe3O4/graphene and Mn3O4/graphene nanocomposites (Cat. Nos. 803715, 803723). Mixed graphene materials offer increased capacity and are promising candidates for next-generation anodes. As an alternative to carbon-based materials, the use of the oxide spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) (Cat. No. 702277), is often used for its high-cycle life and performance.7 TiO2 (Cat. No. 791326) has potential as a LIB anode as it has both high potential and has a high theoretical capacity but has yet to reach this capacity experimentally.8

The electrolyte of a LIB can come in many different forms (liquid, gel, or dry polymers) and typically consists of salts, acids, or bases. Common electrolyte materials include LiBF4 (Cat. No. 451622) and LiPF6 (Cat. No. 405227).9 In addition to these common electrolytes, highly concentrated aqueous ionic liquids, such as 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ≥99% (Cat. No. 900856) and 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ≥98% (Cat. No. 900787), have the advantages of low cost and fast ionic mobility.

The Future of LIB

The LIB has had decades of research dedicated to improving the energy, cycle life, and efficiency, which has resulted in integration into mobile electronics and electric vehicles. Further development into this technology will unlock the potential in other power supply systems, creating an enormous impact on future energy sustainability.
References

1. Goodenough, J. B.; Park, K. S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135 (4), 1167–1176.
2. Deng, D. Energy Sci. Eng. 2015, 3 (5), 385–418. DOI: 10.1002/ese3.95
3. Yoshio, M.; Brodd, R. J.; Kozawa, A., Eds. Lithium-ion Batteries: Science and Technologies; Springer: New York, 2009. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-34445-4
4. Kraytsberg, A.; Ein-Eli, Y. Adv. Energy Mater. 2012, 2, 922–939. DOI:10.1002/aenm.201200068
5. Nitta, N.; Wu, F.; Lee, J. T.; Yushin, G. Mater. Today 2015, 18 (5), 252–264. DOI: 10.1016/j.mattod.2014.10.040
6. Bhatt, M. D.; Lee, J. Y. Int. J. Hydrogen Energ. 2019, 44 (21), 10852–10905. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.02.015.
7. Lu, J.; Chen, Z.; Pan, F., et al. Electrochem. Energ. Rev. 2018, 1, 35–53. DOI:10.1007/s41918-018-0001-4
8. Madian, M.; Eychmuller, A.; Giebeler, L. Batteries 2018, 4 (1), 7. DOI:10.3390/batteries4010007
9. Kim, T.; Song, W.; Son, D.Y.; Ono, L. K.; Qi, Y. J. Mater. Chem. A 2019, 7, 2942–2964. DOI: 10.1039/C8TA10513H

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Figure 1. Schematic representation of a typical Li-ion battery.

Electrode Sheets

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

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765198 Lithium manganese nickel oxide electrode sheet, aluminum substrate, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative Li2Mn3NiO8
765201 Lithium manganese oxide spinel, electrode sheet, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative LiMn2O4
765171 Lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide electrode sheet, aluminum substrate, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2
765163 Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide electrode sheet, aluminum substrate, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2
765155 Lithium titanate spinel, electrode sheet, aluminum substrate, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative Li4Ti5O12

Cathode Materials

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

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746320 Cobalt monoantimonide -80 mesh, 99.9% trace metals basis Green Alternative CoSb
442704 Lithium cobalt(III) oxide 99.8% trace metals basis Green Alternative LiCoO2
725145 Lithium cobalt phosphate powder, ≥99% (trace metals analysis) Green Alternative LiCoPO4
442712 Lithium iron(III) oxide 95% Green Alternative LiFeO2
759546 Lithium iron(II) phosphate powder, <5 μm particle size (BET), >97% (XRF) Green Alternative LiFePO4
725137 Lithium manganese dioxide powder, <1 μm particle size, >99% trace metals basis Green Alternative LiMnO2
725110 Lithium manganese nickel oxide spinel, powder, <0.5 μm particle size (BET), >99% Green Alternative Li2Mn3NiO8
765198 Lithium manganese nickel oxide electrode sheet, aluminum substrate, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative Li2Mn3NiO8
765201 Lithium manganese oxide spinel, electrode sheet, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative LiMn2O4
725129 Lithium manganese oxide spinel, powder, <0.5 μm particle size (BET), >99% Green Alternative LiMn2O4
482277 Lithium manganese(III,IV) oxide electrochemical grade Green Alternative LiMn2O4
400904 Lithium molybdate 99.9% trace metals basis Green Alternative Li2MoO4
760994 Lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide powder, <0.5 μm particle size, >98% Green Alternative LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2
765171 Lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide electrode sheet, aluminum substrate, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2
760986 Lithium nickel cobalt oxide powder, <0.5 μm particle size, >98% Green Alternative LiNi0.8Co0.2O2
757365 Lithium nickel dioxide powder, <3 μm particle size (BET), ≥98% trace metals basis Green Alternative LiNiO2
761001 Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide powder, <0.5 μm particle size, >98% Green Alternative LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2
765163 Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide electrode sheet, aluminum substrate, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2

Anode Materials

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

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444456 Lithium granular, 4-10 mesh particle size, high sodium, 99% (metals basis) Green Alternative Li
266000 Lithium ribbon, thickness × W 1.5 mm × 100 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis Green Alternative Li
265993 Lithium ribbon, thickness × W 0.75 mm × 45 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis Green Alternative Li
320080 Lithium ribbon, thickness × W 0.75 mm × 19 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis Green Alternative Li
265985 Lithium ribbon, thickness × W 0.38 mm × 23 mm, 99.9% trace metals basis Green Alternative Li
278327 Lithium wire, diam. 3.2 mm, in mineral oil, ≥98% Green Alternative Li
426490 Lithium-aluminum alloy Green Alternative Al-Li
400939 Lithium titanate −80 mesh Green Alternative Li2TiO3
765155 Lithium titanate spinel, electrode sheet, aluminum substrate, size 5 in. × 10 in. Green Alternative Li4Ti5O12
702277 Lithium titanate, spinel nanopowder, <200 nm particle size (BET), >99% Green Alternative Li4Ti5O12
549657 Tin(IV) oxide nanopowder, ≤100 nm avg. part. size Green Alternative SnO2

Electrolyte Solutions

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

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746711 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate, 1.0 M LiPF6 in EC/DMC=50/50 (v/v), battery grade Green Alternative LiPF6
746738 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in ethylene carbonate and ethyl methyl carbonate, 1.0 M LiPF6 in EC/EMC=50/50 (v/v), battery grade Green Alternative LiPF6
746746 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate, 1.0 M LiPF6 in EC/DEC=50/50 (v/v), battery grade Green Alternative LiPF6
746754 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in dimethyl carbonate, 1.0 M LiPF6 in DMC, battery grade Green Alternative LiPF6
746762 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in ethyl methyl carbonate, 1.0 M LiPF6 in EMC, battery grade Green Alternative LiPF6
746770 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in diethyl carbonate, 1.0 M LiPF6 in DEC, battery grade Green Alternative LiPF6
746789 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in propylene carbonate, 1.0 M LiPF6 in PC, battery grade Green Alternative LiPF6
809349 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate, 2.0 M LiPF6 EC/DEC=50/50(v/v), battery grade Green Alternative LiPF6
809357 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate, 2.0 M LiPF6 in EC/DMC=50/50(v/v), battery grade Green Alternative LiPF6
809365 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in ethylene carbonate and ethylmethyl carbonate, 2.0 M LiPF6 EC/EMC=50/50(v/v), battery grade Green Alternative LiPF6
809543 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in diethyl carbonate, 2.0 M LiPF6 DEC, battery grade Green Alternative LiPF6

Electrolyte Materials

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

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900804 1-Butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ≥99%, H2O <500 ppm C11H17F6N3O4S2
900802 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ≥99%, H2O <500 ppm C10H15F6N3O4S2
900856 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ≥99% Green Alternative C8H15ClN2
900807 1-Butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ≥99%, H2O <500 ppm C12H22F6N2O4S2
900873 1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide >99%, <500 ppm H2O C11H20F6N2O4S2
900787 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ≥98% Green Alternative C8H14N2O2
900801 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ≥99%, H2O ≤500 ppm C8H11F6N3O4S2
900779 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ≥99%, <500 ppm H2O C6H11F6N2P
900772 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ≥99%, <1000 ppm H2O C6H11BF4N2
900813 1-Ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ≥99%, H2O <500 ppm C9H16F6N2O4S2
757136 Lithium bis(oxalato)borate Green Alternative LiB(C2O4)2
774138 Lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate Green Alternative LiBF2(C2O4)
308315 Lithium hexafluoroarsenate(V) 98% Green Alternative LiAsF6
450227 Lithium hexafluorophosphate battery grade, ≥99.99% trace metals basis Green Alternative LiPF6
809403 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in ethylmethyl carbonate, 2.0 M LiPF6 EMC, battery grade LiPF6
809411 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in dimethyl carbonate, 2.0 M LiPF6 DMC, battery grade LiPF6
809470 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in propylene carbonate, 2.0 M LiPF6 PC, battery grade LiPF6
901685 Lithium hexafluorophosphate solution in ethylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate and diethyl carbonate, LiPF6 in EC/DMC/DEC=1:1:1 (v/v/v) 1.0 M, battery grade LiPF6
634565 Lithium perchlorate battery grade, dry, 99.99% trace metals basis Green Alternative LiClO4
442682 Lithium phosphate monobasic 99% Green Alternative LiH2PO4
451622 Lithium tetrafluoroborate ultra dry, powder, 99.99% trace metals basis Green Alternative LiBF4
481548 Lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate 99.995% trace metals basis Green Alternative CF3SO3Li
900806 1-Methyl-1-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ≥99%, H2O ≤500 ppm C11H20F6N2O4S2
900857 Tributylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ≥99%, H2O <500 ppm C15H30F6N2O4S2

Solvents & Additives

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

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900020 Adiponitrile >99%, acid <200 ppm, H2O <100 ppm NC(CH2)4CN
718203 Allyl methyl sulfone 96% Green Alternative C4H8O2S
900001 tert-Amylbenzene ≥99%, H2O <100 ppm, acid <200 ppm C11H16
900797 1,4-Di-tert-butyl-2,5-bis (2-methoxyethoxy)benzene 99.5%, anhydrous C20H34O4
517135 Diethyl carbonate anhydrous, ≥99% (C2H5O)2CO
900018 Diethyl carbonate ≥99%, acid <10 ppm, H2O <10 ppm (C2H5O)2CO
517127 Dimethyl carbonate anhydrous, ≥99% (CH3O)2CO
809942 Dimethyl carbonate ≥99.9%, acid <10 ppm, H2O <10 ppm (CH3O)2CO
900871 2,2-Dimethyl-3,6,9,12-tetraoxa-2-silatridecane ≥98%, anhydrous C10H24O4Si
809950 Ethylene carbonate ≥99%, acid <10 ppm, H2O <10 ppm C3H4O3
774251 Ethylene sulfite ≥99.0% Green Alternative C2H4O3S
754935 Ethyl methyl carbonate 99% Green Alternative C4H8O3
809934 Ethyl methyl carbonate 99.9%, acid <10 ppm, H2O <10ppm C4H8O3
757349 Fluoroethylene carbonate 99% Green Alternative C3H3FO3
901695 Lithium tetrafluoroborate ≥98%, acid <200 ppm, anhydrous LiBF4
718319 3-(Methylsulfonyl)-1-propyne 95% Green Alternative C4H6O2S
901967 Nanodiamonds 65 nm, dodecane functionalized, powder C
901770 Nanodiamonds 65 nm octadecane functionalized, powder C
810002 Phenylcyclohexane ≥99%, acid < 200 ppm, H2O < 100 ppm C6H5C6H11
809985 1,3-Propanesultone ≥99%, acid <200 ppm, H2O <100 ppm C3H6O3S
310328 Propylene carbonate anhydrous, 99.7% C4H6O3
809969 Propylene carbonate ≥99%, acid <10 ppm, H2O <10 ppm C4H6O3
774456 1,2-Propyleneglycol sulfite ≥98% Green Alternative C3H6O3S
774243 1,3-Propylene sulfite 99% Green Alternative C3H6O3S
809993 2-Propynyl methanesulfonate ≥99.5%, acid <200 ppm, H2O <100 ppm C4H6O3S
401757 Tetrahydrofuran anhydrous, ≥99.9%, inhibitor-free C4H8O
186562 Tetrahydrofuran anhydrous, contains 250 ppm BHT as inhibitor, ≥99.9% C4H8O
900763 2,2,4,4-Tetramethyl-3,8,11,14,17-pentaoxa-2,4-disilaoctadecane 99% C15H36O5Si2
757144 Vinylene carbonate contains 80 ppm BHT as stabilizer, 99% Green Alternative C3H2O3
809977 Vinylene carbonate 99.5%, acid <200 ppm, H2O <100 ppm C3H2O3