Donor Materials

In the field of organic photovoltaics, photoactive material refers to a class of organic conjugated materials that can convert photon energy into electrical energy by the photovoltaic effect.1 When these materials absorb a photon from sunlight, an excited state (electron-hole pair, also known as exciton) is formed. In photovoltaic devices, excitons diffuse to a junction region, and dissociate into free electrons and holes. Finally, charges are transported to the anode (holes) and cathode (electrons) and generate a direct current for electrical circuit.2,3

Organic photoactive materials have received considerable interest due to the combination of physical properties of polymers or small organic molecules (low density, processability, solubility, flexibility etc.) with the optoelectronic properties of semiconductors.4,5 These properties qualify organic photoactive materials as a special category of unique and novel materials in fabrication of light weight and flexible organic photovoltaic devices in large area by low cost manufacturing techniques, such as roll-to-roll printing.6,7

Sigma-Aldrich offers photoactive materials for OPVs, which are categorized into classical conjugated polymers, donor-acceptor conjugated polymers, photoactive small molecules for OPVs and dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) materials.

References:

1. Halls, J. J. M.; Friend, R. H. in Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics, edited by M.D. Archer and R. Hill (Imperial College Press, London, U.K., 2001).
2. Scharber, M. C.; Mühlbacher, D.; Koppe, M.; Denk, P.; Waldauf, C.; Heeger, A. J.; Brabec, C. J. Adv. Mater. 2006, 18, 789.
3. Hoppea, H.; Sariciftci, N. S. J. Mater. Res., 2004, 19, No. 7.
4. Günes, S.; Neugebauer, H.; Sariciftci, N. S. Chem. Rev. 2007, 107, 1324.
5. Cheng, Y.-J.; Yang, S.-H.; Hsu, C.-S. Chem. Rev. 2009, 109, 5868.
6. Krebs, F. C.; Gevorgyan, S. A.; Alstrup, J. Journal of Materials Chemistry 2009, 19, 5442.
7. Blankenburg, L.; Schultheis, K.; Schache, H.; Sensfuss, S.; Schrödner, M. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 2009, 93, 476.

Small Molecules

Product #

Structure

Name

Orbital Energy

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B2403 Benz[b]anthracene 98% HOMO 5.4 eV 
LUMO 2.7 eV 
698415 Benz[b]anthracene sublimed grade, 99.99% trace metals basis HOMO 5.4 eV 
LUMO 2.7 eV 
757268 2,4-Bis[4-(N,N-dibenzylamino)-2,6-dihydroxyphenyl]squaraine 97%  
745596 5,5′′′′-Bis(2′′′′′,2′′′′′-dicyanovinyl)-2,2′:5′,2′′:5′′,2′′′:5′′′,2′′′′-quinquethiophene (DCV5T) ≥97%  
758337 2,4-Bis[4-(N,N-diisobutylamino)-2,6-dihydroxyphenyl] squaraine 97% HOMO 5.3 eV 
LUMO 3.4 eV 
757233 2,4-Bis[4-(N,N-diphenylamino)-2,6-dihydroxyphenyl]squaraine 98% HOMO 5.3 eV 
LUMO 3.8 eV 
777048 2-[(7-{4-[N,N-Bis(4-methylphenyl)amino]phenyl}-2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4-yl)methylene]propanedinitrile 97% (HPLC)  
791423 C101 Dye  
791393 C106 Dye ≥85% (HPLC)  
546674 Copper(II) phthalocyanine sublimed grade, Dye content 99 % HOMO 5.2 eV 
LUMO 3.5 eV 
702854 Copper(II) phthalocyanine triple-sublimed grade, >99.95% trace metals basis HOMO 5.2 eV 
LUMO 3.5 eV 
745944 D102 Dye 95% (HPLC)  
797391 D131 dye >95% (HPLC)  
746606 D358 Dye 95%  
753939 DBP 98% (HPLC) HOMO 5.5 eV (CV)
LUMO 3.5 eV (CV)
633216 5,5′′′′′-Dihexyl-2,2′:5′,2′′:5′′,2′′′:5′′′,2′′′′:5′′′′,2′′′′′-sexithiophene electron donor for OPV devices HOMO 5.2 eV 
LUMO 2.9 eV 
790524 2-[7-(4-Diphenylaminophenyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4-yl]methylenepropanedinitrile 96%  
777293 2-{[7-(5-N,N-Ditolylaminothiophen-2-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4-yl]methylene}malononitrile 99% (HPLC)  
772380 DTS(FBTTh2)2  
772372 DTS(PTTh2)2  
791415 K19 Dye 85% (HPLC)  
747211 Merocyanine dye, HB194  
791245 N749 Black Dye  
698423 Pentacene triple-sublimed grade, ≥99.995% trace metals basis HOMO 5 eV 
LUMO 3 eV 
684848 Pentacene sublimed grade, ≥99.9% trace metals basis HOMO 5 eV 
LUMO 3 eV 
594687 α-Sexithiophene HOMO 5.3 eV (opt)
LUMO 3.1 eV (opt)
753912 SMDPPEH sublimed, 97% (HPLC) HOMO 5.2 eV 
LUMO 3.7 eV 
753920 SMDPPO  
757330 Tin(IV) 2,3-naphthalocyanine dichloride 99%  
687251 Tris[4-(5-dicyanomethylidenemethyl-2-thienyl)phenyl]amine 97% HOMO 6 eV 
LUMO 4.2 eV 
341169 Zinc phthalocyanine Dye content 97 % HOMO 5.17 eV (CV)
LUMO 3.78 eV (CV)

Polymers

Product #

Structure

Name

Orbital Energy

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546461 MDMO-PPV light-emitting polymer HOMO 5.4 eV 
LUMO 3.2 eV 
541443 MEH-PPV average Mn 40,000-70,000 HOMO 5.3 eV 
LUMO 3 eV 
541435 MEH-PPV average Mn 70,000-100,000 HOMO 5.3 eV 
LUMO 3 eV 
536512 MEH-PPV average Mn 150,000-250,000 HOMO 5.3 eV 
LUMO 3 eV 
777080 PBDTBO-TPDO  1.86  (opt)
773514 PBDT(EH)-TPD(Oct)  1.83 eV (opt)
HOMO 5.4 eV 
LUMO 3.75 eV 
776300 PBDT-TPD average Mn 10,000-50,000, PDI ≤3.0  1.84 eV (opt)
HOMO 5.48 eV 
LUMO 3.64 eV 
772402 PBDTTT-CF  
745901 PBTTPD  
753998 PCDTBT HOMO 5.5 eV 
LUMO 3.6 eV 
754005 PCPDTBT average Mw 7,000-20,000 HOMO 5.3 eV 
LUMO 3.55 eV 
745928 PDTSTPD  
900720 PffBT4T-2OD New  
L754013 PFO-DBT AldrichCPR, Mw 10,000-50,000 HOMO 5.4 eV (CV)
LUMO 3.53 eV (CV)
754013 PFO-DBT average Mw 10,000-50,000 HOMO 5.4 eV (CV)
LUMO 3.53 eV (CV)
794333 Poly([2,6′-4,8-di(5-ethylhexylthienyl)benzo[1,2-b;3,3-b]dithiophene]{3-fluoro-2[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}) HOMO 5.38 eV 
LUMO 3.81 eV 
682780 Poly(3-dodecylthiophene-2,5-diyl) electronic grade, 99.995% trace metals basis, average Mw ~27,000 HOMO 5.29 eV 
LUMO 3.55 eV 
682799 Poly(3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl) regioregular, electronic grade, 99.995% trace metals basis, average Mn ~25,000 HOMO 5.25 eV 
LUMO 3.55 eV 
L754021 PSiF-DBT AldrichCPR, Mw 10,000-80,000 HOMO 5.39 eV (CV)
772410 PTB7 average Mw 80,000-200,000, PDI ≤3.0  
745898 TQ1 HOMO -5.7 eV 
LUMO -3.3 eV