Perovskite Materials

Organometallic Perovskites as High-Efficiency Light Harvesters

Solar energy represents the largest potential segment of non-carbon energy and therefore its conversion into electric energy offers an interesting research challenge. Traditionally, high efficiencies have been achieved in solar cells based on single crystals of silicon and other semiconducting compounds.1 Recently, the organo-lead halide-based perovskites with the formula CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) have attracted considerable attention as light harvesters due to their high conversion efficiencies.2 Their self assembling characteristics allow these perovskite-based hybrids to be readily synthesized with the potential to be a low-cost and high efficiency light harvester for solar cells.3,4

During the fabrication processes for these devices, CH3NH3PbX3 organometallics are commonly synthesized both in one-step and two-step processes.5,6 In the one-step synthesis process, the perovskite pigment is deposited in a single step onto a porous metal oxide film using a mixture of PbX2 and CH3NH3X in a common solvent such as γ-butyrolactone and dimethylformamide.5 For two-step synthesis processes, PbX2 is first introduced in the porous metal oxide from a solution and is then transformed into the perovskite by exposure of the resulting lead halide-loaded porous material to a solution of CH3NH3X.6 Sigma Aldrich offers a complete portfolio of precursors for the synthesis of these organometallic perovskites.
Figure 1: The cross-sectional SEM image of a CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cell device (left). The middle of the picture shows the perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 adsorbed TiO2 and right of the picture shows perovskite structure. Green, gray, and red spheres represent the CH3NH3+, Pb2+ and I-, respectively. Adapted from Ref. 5.

References
1. M. Wright and A. Uddin, Solar Energy Materials and Solar cells 2012, 107, 87.
2. M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, M. Tsutomu, N. Takurou, and H. J. Snaith, Science 2012, 338, 643.
3. M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, Natutre 2013, 501, 395.
4. J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, Nano Lett. 2013, 13, 1764.
5. N-G. Park, Material Matters, 2013, 8 (4), 126.
6. J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S-J Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Gratzel, Nature 2013, 499, 316.

Lead Halides

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

Form

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398853 Lead(II) bromide Br2Pb 99.999 powder
211141 Lead(II) bromide Br2Pb 98 powder
268690 Lead(II) chloride Cl2Pb 98 powder
203572 Lead(II) chloride Cl2Pb 99.999 powder and chunks
449865 Lead(II) chloride Cl2Pb 99.999  
900168 Lead(II) iodide I2Pb 99.999  
211168 Lead(II) iodide I2Pb 99 powder
554359 Lead(II) iodide I2Pb 99.999  
203602 Lead(II) iodide I2Pb 99.999 solid
795550 Lead(II) iodide solution PbI2   solution

Electron Transport Layer

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

Purity

Form

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913758 Phen-NaDPO C34H23N2OP 98 powder

Organohalide Products

Product #

Description

Concentration

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805971 Acetamidinium iodide Green Alternative  
900885 Benzylammonium bromide  
806196 Benzylammonium iodide Green Alternative  
912816 Bis(butylammonium) methylammonium heptaiododiplumbate(2-) Green Alternative  
912301 Bis(butylammonium) tetrakis(methylammonium) hexadecaiodopentaplumbate Green Alternative  
900817 n-Butylammonium bromide Green Alternative  
900827 t-Butylammonium bromide Green Alternative  
900869 i-Butylammonium bromide Green Alternative  
805874 n-Butylammonium iodide Green Alternative  
806102 t-Butylammonium iodide Green Alternative  
805866 i-Butylammonium iodide Green Alternative  
900840 Diethylammonium bromide Green Alternative  
806188 Diethylammonium iodide Green Alternative  
912158 N,N-Diethylethane-1,2-diammonium iodide Green Alternative  
900872 Dimethylammonium bromide Green Alternative  
805831 Dimethylammonium iodide Green Alternative  
900833 Ethane-1,2-diammonium bromide Green Alternative  
900852 Ethane-1,2-diammonium iodide Green Alternative  
900868 Ethylammonium bromide Green Alternative  
805823 Ethylammonium Iodide Green Alternative  
900835 Formamidinium bromide Green Alternative  
901437 Formamidinium bromide Green Alternative  
806048 Formamidinium iodide Green Alternative  
901436 Formamidinium iodide Green Alternative  
900839 Guanidinium bromide Green Alternative  
901452 Guanidinium bromide Green Alternative  
806056 Guanidinium iodide Green Alternative  
901450 Guanidinium iodide Green Alternative  
913111 Hexane-1,6-diammonium bromide Green Alternative  
900821 Imidazolium bromide Green Alternative  
534102 Methylamine solution Green Alternative 33 wt. % in absolute ethanol
395056 Methylamine solution Green Alternative 2.0 M in THF
395048 Methylamine solution Green Alternative 2.0 M in methanol
806498 Methylammonium bromide Green Alternative  
901435 Methylammonium bromide Green Alternative  
793507 Methylammonium bromide Green Alternative  
808407 Methylammonium bromide solution Green Alternative 0.18 M in 2-propanol
0.18±0.2 M
809039 Methylammonium chlorodiiodoplumbate(II) precursor solution Green Alternative  
793493 Methylammonium iodide Green Alternative  
901434 Methylammonium iodide Green Alternative  
806390 Methylammonium iodide Green Alternative  
808431 Methylammonium iodide Green Alternative 0.42 M in 2-propanol
0.42 M±0.04 M
793833 Methylammonium triiodoplumbate(II) precursor solution Green Alternative 40 wt. % in DMF
912638 n-Octylammonium bromide Green Alternative  
900829 Phenethylammonium bromide Green Alternative  
805904 Phenethylammonium iodide Green Alternative  
900828 Phenylammonium bromide Green Alternative  
805912 Phenylammonium iodide Green Alternative  
900834 Propane-1,3-diammonium bromide Green Alternative  
900832 Propane-1,3-diammonium iodide Green Alternative  
900819 n-Propylammonium bromide Green Alternative  
900816 i-Propylammonium bromide Green Alternative  
805858 n-Propylammonium iodide Green Alternative  
805882 i-Propylammonium iodide Green Alternative  

Titania Nanomaterials for Support

Product #

Description

Particle Size

Form

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791555 Titania paste, active opaque     paste (cream)
791539 Titania paste, reflector     paste (white)
791547 Titania paste, transparent     paste (yellow)
513415 Titanium <100 nm
98.5 dispersion
nanoparticles
718467 Titanium(IV) oxide   99.5 nanopowder
637254 Titanium(IV) oxide, anatase <25 nm
99.7 nanopowder
634662 Titanium(IV) oxide, mixture of rutile and anatase <100 nm (BET)
<50 nm (XRD)
99.5 nanopowder
700347 Titanium(IV) oxide, mixture of rutile and anatase <150 nm (volume distribution, DLS)
~21 nm (primary particle size of starting nanopowder)
99.5 dispersion
nanoparticles
700339 Titanium(IV) oxide, mixture of rutile and anatase <100 nm
~30 nm (primary particle size of starting nanopowder)
99.9 dispersion
nanoparticles
700355 Titanium(IV) oxide, mixture of rutile and anatase <250 nm (DLS)
~21 nm (primary particle size of starting nanopowder)
99.9 nanoparticle
paste
637262 Titanium(IV) oxide, rutile <100 nm
99.5 nanopowder

Titania Precursors

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

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325252 Titanium diisopropoxide bis(acetylacetonate) C16H28O6Ti  
205273 Titanium(IV) isopropoxide C12H28O4Ti 97
377996 Titanium(IV) isopropoxide C12H28O4Ti 99.999
87560 Titanium(IV) isopropoxide C12H28O4Ti 97

Hole Conductor Cobalt Dopants

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

Purity

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805238 FK 102 Co(II) PF6 salt C24H21CoF12N9P2 98
805254 FK 102 Co(III) PF6 salt C24H21CoF18N9P3 98
805246 FK 102 Co(II) TFSI salt C28H21CoN11O8S4F12 98
805203 FK 102 Co(III) TFSI salt C30H21CoN12O12S6F18 98
805378 FK 209 Co(II) PF6 salt C36H45CoF12N9P2 98
805408 FK 209 Co(III) PF6 salt C36H45CoF18N9P3 98
805386 FK 209 Co(II) TFSI salt C40H45CoF12N11O8S4 98
805394 FK 209 Co(III) TFSI salt C42H45CoF18O12N12S6 98
805521 FK 269 Co(III) PF6 salt C22H18CoF18N10P3 98
805815 FK 269 Co(II) TFSI salt C26H18CoN12O8S4F12 98
805807 FK 269 Co(III) TFSI salt C28H18CoF18N13O12S6 98

Hole Transporting Materials

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

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907642 Cuprous thiocyanate Green Alternative    
906395 EH44 C48H51N3O4 99
907065 Poly-TPD    
902500 SHT-263 Solarpur® Green Alternative C81H68N4O8 99.9
904899 Spiro[9H-fluorene-9,9′-[9H]xanthene]-2,7-diamine C53H42N2O5 98
906018 Spiro[9H-fluorene-9,9′-[9H]xanthene]-2,2′,7,7′-tetramine C81H68N4O9 98
901101 TFB    

Halide Sources

Product #

Description

Molecular Formula

Concentration

Details

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210021 Hydriodic acid HI 99.95 57 wt. % in H2O
 
210013 Hydriodic acid HI 99.99 57 wt. % in H2O
 
398098 Hydriodic acid HI 55, 58    
752851 Hydriodic acid HI 99.999 57 wt. %
 
248649 Hydriodic acid HI 47    
58160 Hydriodic acid HI 67    
50486 Hydriodic acid HI 55, 60    
244260 Hydrobromic acid HBr 47, 48, 49   48% aqueous HBr
268003 Hydrobromic acid HBr 48   48% aqueous HBr
339245 Hydrobromic acid HBr 99.99 48 wt. % in H2O
48% aqueous HBr

Layered 2D Perovskites

Product #

Image

Description

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912557 Bis(butylammonium) bis(methyl ammonium) decaiodotriplumbate Green Alternative
912816 Bis(butylammonium) methylammonium heptaiododiplumbate(2-) Green Alternative
912301 Bis(butylammonium) tetrakis(methylammonium) hexadecaiodopentaplumbate Green Alternative
914363 Bis(butylammonium) tris(methylammonium) tridecaiodotetraplumbate
910945 Bis[(2-phenylethyl)ammonium] tetrabromoplumbate Green Alternative
910937 Bis[(2-phenylethyl)ammonium] tetraiodoplumbate Green Alternative
910961 Di-n-butylammonium tetraiodoplumbate Green Alternative