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Duolink® References

Duolink proximity ligation assay (PLA) has been used in countless studies in a variety of fields. Browse the following tables to view highlights from the many applications of this technology.

Cell Biology

The abbreviations used on this page are as follows:


  • PPI: Protein-protein interaction
  • PTM: Post-translational modification
  • SP: Single protein


  • BF: Brightfield
  • FL: Fluorescence
  • FC: Flow Cytometry
Title Application Detection Sample Reference
Flow Cytometric Measurement of Blood Cells with BCR-ABL1 Fusion Protein in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia SP FC Cell Scientific Reports | 7: 623 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-00755-y
Flow Cytometric In Situ Proximity Ligation Analyses of Protein Interactions and Post-translational Modification of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Family PPI/PTM FC Cell Cytometry Part A  75A: 833839, 2009
CYLD negatively regulates transforming growth factor-β-signalling via deubiquitinating Akt. PPI FL Cell Lim JH et al. Nat. Commun. 2012 Apr 10; 3: 771.
SLUG is required for SOX9 stabilization and functions to promote cancer stem cells and metastasis in human lung carcinoma. PPI FL Cell Luanpitpong S et al.
Oncogene. 2016 Jun 2;
35 (22): 2824-33.
Angiopoietin-like 4 protein elevates the prosurvival intracellular O2(-):H2O2 ratio and confers anoikis resistance to tumors. PPI / PTM FL Cell / Tissue Zhu P et al. Cancer Cell. 2011 Mar 8; 19 (3): 401-15.
Membranous expression of ectodomain isoforms of the epidermal growth factor receptor predicts outcome after chemoradiotherapy of lymph node-negative cervical cancer. PTM BF Tissue Halle C et al. Clin Cancer Res. 2011 Aug 15; 17 (16): 5501-12. 
Monosomy of chromosome 10 associated with dysregulation of epidermal growth factor signaling in glioblastomas. SP FL Tissue Yadav AK et al. JAMA. 2009 Jul 15; 302 (3): 276-89. 

Title Application Detection Sample Reference
Necdin protects embryonic motoneurons from programmed cell death. PPI FL Tissue Aebischer J et al. PLoS One. 2011; 6 (9): e23764.
Golden Goal collaborates with Flamingo in conferring synaptic-layer specificity in the visual system. PPI FL Cell Hakeda-Suzuki S et al. Nat. Neurosci. 2011 Mar; 14 (3): 314-23.
Local translation of extranuclear lamin B promotes axon maintenance. PPI FL Cell Yoon BC et al. Cell. 2012 Feb 17; 148 (4): 752-64
Endothelin-converting enzyme-1 regulates trafficking and signalling of the neurokinin 1 receptor in endosomes of myenteric neurones. PPI / PTM FL Cell Pelayo JC et al. J Physiol. 2011 Nov 1; 589 (Pt 21): 5213-30.
AMP-activated protein kinase modulates tau phosphorylation and tau pathology in vivo. SP FL Cell Domise M et al. Sci Rep. 2016 May 27; 6: 26758
Cell Biology
Title Application Detection Sample Reference
High-Throughput Precision Measurement of Subcellular Localization in Single Cells SP/PPI FC Cell Cytometry Part A 91A: 180189, 2017 O
LRP2 is an auxiliary SHH receptor required to condition the forebrain ventral midline for inductive signals. PPI BF Tissue Christ A et al. Dev Cell. 2012 Feb 14; 22 (2): 268-78.
Notch-independent RBPJ controls angiogensis in the adult heart. PPI FL Cell Diaz-Trelles R et al.  Nat Commun. 2016 Jun 30; 7: 12088.
The polarisome is required for segregation and retrograde transport of protein aggregates. PPI FL Cell Liu B et al. Cell. 2010 Jan 22; 140 (2): 257-67.
Tissue factor and PAR1 promote microbiota-induced intestinal vascular remodelling. PPI FL Cell / Tissue Reinhardt C et al. Nature. 2012 Mar 11; 483 (7391) :627-31.
The p53 mRNA-Mdm2 interaction controls Mdm2 nuclear trafficking and is required for p53 activation following DNA damage. PPI / PTM FL Cell Gajjar M et al. Cancer Cell. 2012 Jan 17; 21 (1): 25-35.
Tobacco calmodulin-like protein provides secondary defense by binding to and directing degradation of virus RNA silencing suppressors. PPI / SP FL Cell Nakahara KS et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2012 Jun 19; 109 (25): 10113-8. 
Title Application Detection Sample Reference
PTPRO represses ERBB2-driven breast oncogenesis by dephosphorylation and endosomal internalization of ERBB2. PPI FL Cell Dong H et al. Oncogene. 2017 Jan 19; 36 (3): 410-422.
Dnmt3/transcription factor interactions as crucial players in targeted DNA methylation. PPI / PTM FL Cell Hervouet E et al.  Epigenetics. 2009 Oct 21; 4 (7): 487-99.
Methyl donor deficiency impairs fatty acid oxidation through PGC-1α hypomethylation and decreased ER-α, ERR-α, and HNF-4α in the rat liver. PPI / PTM FL Tissue Pooya S et al.  J Hepatol. 2012 Aug; 57 (2): 344-51.
Histone H3 lysine 56 methylation regulates DNA replication through its interaction with PCNA. PPI / PTM / SP FL Cell Yu Y et al. Mol Cell. 2012 Apr 13; 46 (1): 7-17.
KLF4-dependent phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells has a key role in atherosclerotic plaque pathogenesis. SP FL Cell / Tissue Shankman LS et al.Nat Med. 2015 Jun; 21 (6): 628-37
Title Application Detection Sample Reference
Proximity ligation assay combined with flow cytometry is a powerful tool for the detection of cytokine receptor dimerization PPI FC Cell S.S. Andersen et al. / Cytokine 64 (2013) 54–57
Quantitative analysis of protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications in rare immune populations PPI/PTM FC Cell NATURE COMMUNICATIONS | 8: 1524
Macrophage receptor SR-AI is crucial to maintain normal plasma levels of coagulation factor X. PPI FL Cell Muczynski V et al. Blood. 2016 Feb 11; 127 (6): 778-86.
Toll-like receptor 2 mediates the activation of human monocytes and endothelial cells by antiphospholipid antibodies. PPI FL Cell Satta N et al. Blood. 2011 May 19; 117 (20): 5523-31.
NF-κB-mediated degradation of the coactivator RIP140 regulates inflammatory responses and contributes to endotoxin tolerance. PPI / PTM FL Cell Ho PC et al.  Nat Immunol. 2012 Mar 4; 13 (4): 379-86.
Histone deacetylases 6 and 9 and sirtuin-1 control Foxp3+ regulatory T cell function through shared and isoform-specific mechanisms. PTM FL Cell Beier UH et al. Sci Signal. 2012 Jun 19; 5 (229): ra45.
Interleukin-10 genotypes of the -1087 single nucleotide polymorphism influence sp1 expression in periodontitis lesions. SP BF Tissue Larsson L et al. J Periodontol. 2011 Sep; 82 (9): 1376-82.