Scale-Up Guide: Photocatalysis Reaction

Scale-Up Guide: High-Throughput Base Screen

Important Note

To best enable scale-up success, the use of glove box is highly recommended. However, modified bench top techniques are provided below.   

General Guidelines for Reaction Scale-Up

  • Oven dry all glassware and stir bars
  • Preheat oil bath to avoid temperature spiking
  • Use dry, high purity reagents (and substrates)
  • Use unopened Sure/Seal™ anhydrous solvents (or newly degassed)
  • Keep reactions under an atmosphere of nitrogen
  • Purge needle/syringe with nitrogen prior to use

Photoreactors

The SynLed Parallel Photoreactor (Z742680) and the Penn PhD Photoreactor m2 (Z744031) are both available for photocatalysis reaction scale-up. The SynLED Parallel Photoreactor features a 4x4 reaction block bottom-lit with blue LEDs (465 nm) facilitating reaction optimization and library synthesis (approx. volume: 2-4 mL). For further scale-up (up to 40 mL vials), the Penn PhD Photoreactor m2 provides user control of wavelength, temperature and light intensity.

 

SynLed Parallel Photoreactor

SynLed Parallel Photoreactor (Z742680)

Penn PhD Photoreactor m2

Penn PhD Photoreactor m2 (Z744031)

Example Experimental

All solids (substrates, catalysts, reagents) were weighed on a bench top balance and added to a cooled, oven dried flask1,2 equipped with an oven dried stir bar. The reaction was capped and then purged and backfilled with nitrogen (3x) with a nitrogen-fed manifold needle. Anhydrous solvent (SureSeal™ed and punctured with a nitrogen-fed manifold needle) was then added via syringe. When all constituents were added, the nitrogen line was removed and the reaction allowed to stir under appropriate light irradiation for the duration of the reaction.

1See the Photoredox Catalysis: Desk Reference and User Guide for more detailed additional guidance and troubleshooting tips

2Reaction vials capable of being sealed with a microwave cap are very useful as well. By design, the caps do not need to be replaced once punctured.

Photocatalysis Reaction Product List

Mouse over image to select.

KitAlysis

 

Product No. Description Vial
747777 [Ru(bpz)3][PF6]2 A1
747769 [Ir(dtbbpy)(ppy)2]PF6 A2
637017 Bismuth(III) oxid A3
318337 Acridine Orange HCl hydrate A4
P2508 Proflavine hemisulfate salt hydrat A5
459852 9,10-Anthracenedicarbonitrile A6
747785 [Ru(bpm)3][Cl]2 B1
747793 (Ir[dF(CF3)ppy]2(dtbpy))PF6 B2
Product No. Description Vial
333190 Bismuth(III) sulfide B3
793221 9-Mesityl-10-phenylacridinium tetrafluoroborate B4
900421 9-Mesityl-3,6-di-tert-butyl-10-phenylacridinium tetrafluoroborate B5
46955 Fluorescein B6
224758 Ru(bpy)3Cl2·6H2O C1
804215 [Ir{dFCF3ppy}2(bpy)]PF6 C2
232017 Tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone
C3
793876 9-Mesityl-2,7-dimethyl-10-phenylacridinium tetrafluoroborate C4
900693 9-Mesityl-1,3,6,8-tetramethoxy-10-phenylacridin-10-ium tetrafluoroborate C5
272345 2,4,6-Triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate C6
343714 Ru(phen)3Cl2·xH2O D1
688096 Ir(ppy)3 D2
D60400 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone D3
794171 9-Mesityl-10-methylacridinium tetrafluoroborate D4
900694 10-(3,5-Dimethoxyphenyl)-9-mesityl-1,3,6,8-tetramethoxyacridin-10-ium tetrafluoroborate D5
900692 2,4,6-Tris(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrylium tetrafluoroborate D6