VSEPR Chart | Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

What is VSEPR Theory?

The valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory is a model used to predict 3-D molecular geometry based on the number of valence shell electron bond pairs among the atoms in a molecule or ion. This model assumes that electron pairs will arrange themselves to minimize repulsion effects from one another. In other words, the electron pairs are as far apart as possible.

VSEPR Shapes

The VSEPR model is useful for predicting and visualizing molecular structures. The structures are: linear, trigonal planar, angled, tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal, disphenoidal (seesaw), t-shaped, octahedral, square pyramidal, square planar, and pentagonal bipyramidal.

The VSEPR structures take the names of 3-D geometric shapes, as in the example trigonal bipyramidal. Under the VSEPR model, a trigonal bipyramidal molecule such as phosphorus pentachloride or PCl5, with a central phosphorus atom and five valence shell electron pairs, looks like two (bi) connected triangular-base pyramids, where each atom is the vertex or corner of a triangular face.

VSEPR Chart Table

VSEPR Chart Table

VSEPR Chart Downloads

Downloadable PDF
Printable Image SVG (in-browser)

 

Molecular Shape Image Downloads
Linear (CN 2)
Trigonal pyramidal
Linear (CN 3) Trigonal bipyramidal
Linear (CN 4) Bisphenoidal (seesaw)
Linear (CN 5) T-shaped
Trigonal planar Octahedral
Angled (CN 3) Square pyramidal
Angled (CN 4) Square planar
Tetrahedral Pentagonal bipyramidal

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Using the VSEPR Chart to Determine Shape and Bond Angle

To use a VSEPR table, first determine the coordination number or number of electron pairs.

  1. Count the valence electrons of the central atom.

  2. Add an electron for each bonding atom.

  3. Subtract an electron if the central atom has a positive charge; and add an electron for a central atom with negative charge.

  4. Halve your count to get the total electron pairs.

Finally, look up your molecule on the chart by coordination number and number of atoms.

Alternatively, you can count the lone electron pairs, which are also indicated on the chart.

Example: PCl5

Once you know PCl5 has five electron pairs, you can identify it on a VSEPR chart as a molecule with a trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry. Its bond angles are 90° and 120°, where the equatorial-equatorial bonds are 120° apart from one another, and all other angles are 90°.

More VSEPR Examples

Some other examples shown on the VSEPR chart are sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, whose six electron pairs give it octahedral geometry with 90° angles, and CO2, which has two electron pairs and linear geometry.

What does VSEPR Stand for?

VSEPR is an acronym that stands for valence shell electron pair repulsion. The model was proposed by Nevil Sidgwick and Herbert Powell in 1940. Ronald Gillespie and Ronald Nyholm then developed the model into their theory published in 1957; they are considered the developers of the VSEPR theory. The approach was commonly referred to as VSEPR from 1963 to the present.

What are the VSEPR Theory Postulates?

 

Gillespie summarizes the VSEPR theory rules as:

  1. Nonbinding domains are larger than single bond domains; they are more spread out and occupy more space in the valence shell than single bond domains. This is understandable because lone pairs are under the influence of only one positive core rather than two.

  2. The size of a single bond domain in the valence shell of a central atom decreases with increasing electronegativity of the ligand.

  3. Although it is often convenient to think of double and triple bonds as composed of a σ or two π bonds or two or three bent single bonds, respectively, it is simpler in the electron pair domain model to consider a double bond as a two electron pair domain and a triple bond as a three electron pair domain in which the individual electron pairs are not distinguished. These bond domains increase in size from a single to a double to a triple bond.1

VSEPR is often explained to beginners as eight simpler postulates:

  1. Molecular shape can be determined by the number of electron pairs present.

  2. Electron pairs tend to repel one another.

  3. Electron pairs arrange themselves to minimize the repulsion between them.

  4. The valence or outermost electron shell is assumed to be spherical.

  5. Multiple bonds are accounted as single electron pairs, and bonded electron pairs as a single pair.

  6. Lone pair electrons have the maximum repulsion, and bond pair electrons the minimum.

  7. All electron pairs assume positions of least repulsion.

  8. Repulsive interaction of electron pairs is greatest between lone pairs and least between bond pairs: bond pair – bond pair < lone pair – bond pair < lone pair – lone pair.

 

Molecular Geometry Definition

Molecular geometry is a method to determine the shape of a molecule based on the repulsion occurring between bond electron pairs in the outermost (or valence) electron shell. It’s useful to study molecular geometry to get information beyond that provided in a Lewis structure. Many physical and chemical properties are affected by the shape of molecules.

VSEPR is a molecular geometry model that helps predict the general shape of a molecule but doesn’t provide information about the length or type of bonds. VSEPR theory is not effective in molecules where the central atom is a transition metal and thus has a high atomic mass that offsets or weakens the pull of bonded valence electrons.

Electron Geometry vs Molecular Geometry

The VSEPR model is one way to determine molecular geometry. A more advanced way of determining the shape of a compound is electron geometry. Both approaches depend on information about electrons, but the electron geometry model accounts for all electrons. The two models can predict different shapes for the same molecule.

You can also differentiate the two by thinking of electron geometry as a way of looking at the electrons that surround an atom and molecular geometry as a way of looking at the arrangement of atoms around a central atom.

Molecular Modeling with VSEPR

We offer chemistry resources for beginners as well as professionals. Our Cochranes orbitals for Unit™ molecular models show the effect of unpaired electrons on molecular structure, and our Cochranes orbitals for Unit™ molecular models allow you to construct various types of molecules. We also sell several types of MolyMod Molyorbital™ sets and molecular model sets by MolyMod.
 

References

  1. Gillespie, R. J. Electron densities and the VSEPR model of molecular geometry. Can. J. Chem. 70, 742 (1992).