New Standards for Residue Analysis: Fluoroquinolones

Reporter EU Volume 11

Fluoroquinolones are quinolones that have an added fluorine atom to improve their effectiveness. These compounds have a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative as well as Gram-positive bacteria, and an excellent tissue distribution. They act by deactivating the bacterial enzymes necessary for DNA transcription. The fluoroquinolones have a broad range of therapeutic indications. For instance, they are given to neutrogenic patients as prophylaxis. In veterinary medicine, fluoroquinolones are used as treatment and metaphylaxis but not as growth promoters. The most common fluoroquinolones in use are now available as Analytical Standard grade (Table 1):

Product Name Pack Size Prod. No.
Ciprofloxacin 100 mg 33434
Danofloxacin 100 mg 33700
Enrofloxacin 100 mg 33699
Sarafloxacin-hydrochloride 100 mg 33497
Table 1

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Ciprofloxacin Figure 1 is a synthetic broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent for intravenous (I.V.) administration. It is used to treat bacterial infections in many different parts of the body and it is approved for the inhaled form of anthrax after an individual has been exposed. Ciprofloxacin is a faint to light yellow crystalline powder. It is soluble in dilute (0.1N) hydrochloric acid and is practically insoluble in water and ethanol.

Figure 1 Ciprofloxacin

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Enrofloxacin was introduced in the US for food animal use in 1996 (Figure 2). Ever since then it has proven time and again to be a valuable tool for fighting disease in poultry and helped to ensure a safe food supply. Only available by veterinary prescription, enrofloxacin is used exclusively for therapeutic purposes. Administered as a short term therapy, is used in instances of life threatening disease of cattle or poultry flocks. Enrofloxacin is a light yellowish to yellow powder, slightly soluble in water. Structurally, it is related to the humanapproved drug ciprofloxacin.

Figure 2 Enrofloxacin

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Sarafloxacin is an antibiotic drug used to prevent early death in poultry caused by Escherichia coli infection (Figure 3). It has been proposed for use in drinking water of poultry to treat bacterial infection and in fish feed to treat diseases such as furunculosis, vibriosis and enteric redmouth. Sarafloxacin hydrochloride is an off-white or yellowish crystalline powder. It is insoluble in water or in ethanol, soluble in sodium hydroxide solution.

Figure 3 Sarafloxacin

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