IL-1 acts on T cells to enhance the magnitude of in vivo immune responses.

Cytokine (2011-08-17)
S Z Ben-Sasson, Stephane Caucheteux, Michelle Crank, Jane Hu-Li, William E Paul
RESUMEN

IL-1 strikingly enhances antigen-driven responses of CD4 and CD8 T cells. It is substantially more effective than LPS and when added to a priming regime of antigen plus LPS, it strikingly enhances cell expansion. The effect is mediated by direct action on CD4 and CD8 T cells; the response occurs when OT-I or OT-II cells are transferred to B6 IL-1R1-/- recipients and only cells that express IL-1 receptors can respond. The major mechanism through which IL-1 enhances responses is by increasing survival of responding cells. IL-1 enhances the proportion of responding CD4 T cells that differentiate into Th17 cells and increases the proportion of responding CD8 cells that express granzyme B. Of a wide range of cytokines tested, only IL-1α and IL-1β mediate this function. The potency of IL-1 as an enhancer of T cell responses suggests that it could act to enhance responses to weak vaccines and that the pathway utilized by IL-1 might be considered in the design of new generations of adjuvants.

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