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Essential role of mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter in the generation of mitochondrial pH gradient and metabolism-secretion coupling in insulin-releasing cells.

The Journal of biological chemistry (2014-12-31)
Xianglan Quan, Tuyet Thi Nguyen, Seong-Kyung Choi, Shanhua Xu, Ranjan Das, Seung-Kuy Cha, Nari Kim, Jin Han, Andreas Wiederkehr, Claes B Wollheim, Kyu-Sang Park
RESUMEN

In pancreatic β-cells, ATP acts as a signaling molecule initiating plasma membrane electrical activity linked to Ca(2+) influx, which triggers insulin exocytosis. The mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) mediates Ca(2+) uptake into the organelle, where energy metabolism is further stimulated for sustained second phase insulin secretion. Here, we have studied the contribution of the MCU to the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and metabolism-secretion coupling in intact and permeabilized clonal β-cells as well as rat pancreatic islets. Knockdown of MCU with siRNA transfection blunted matrix Ca(2+) rises, decreased nutrient-stimulated ATP production as well as insulin secretion. Furthermore, MCU knockdown lowered the expression of respiratory chain complexes, mitochondrial metabolic activity, and oxygen consumption. The pH gradient formed across the inner mitochondrial membrane following nutrient stimulation was markedly lowered in MCU-silenced cells. In contrast, nutrient-induced hyperpolarization of the electrical gradient was not altered. In permeabilized cells, knockdown of MCU ablated matrix acidification in response to extramitochondrial Ca(2+). Suppression of the putative Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter leucine zipper-EF hand-containing transmembrane protein 1 (LETM1) also abolished Ca(2+)-induced matrix acidification. These results demonstrate that MCU-mediated Ca(2+) uptake is essential to establish a nutrient-induced mitochondrial pH gradient which is critical for sustained ATP synthesis and metabolism-secretion coupling in insulin-releasing cells.

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Anti-MCU antibody produced in rabbit, Prestige Antibodies® Powered by Atlas Antibodies, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous glycerol solution