A cross-coupling reaction in organic synthesis occurs when two fragments are joined together with the aid of a metal catalyst. Cross-coupling has been an essential reaction in catalytic chemistry for the past 30 years starting with the pioneering work by Heck, Negishi, and Suzuki, who were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2010 for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling. As one of the most versatile and powerful bond-forming methods in synthetic organic chemistry, the field of cross-coupling has matured to the point where nearly any two fragments can be coupled with the right catalyst. With its usage increasing exponentially, the field has grown to include numerous strategies for carbon-carbon, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-oxygen bond formation, including key reactions such as:
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