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Journal of periodontal & implant science

Effectiveness of biphasic calcium phosphate block bone substitutes processed using a modified extrusion method in rabbit calvarial defects.


PMID 25932338

Abstract

This study evaluated the mechanical and structural properties of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) blocks processed using a modified extrusion method, and assessed their in vivo effectiveness using a rabbit calvarial defect model. BCP blocks with three distinct ratios of hydroxyapatite (HA):tricalcium phosphate (TCP) were produced using a modified extrusion method:HA8 (8%:92%), HA48 (48%:52%), and HA80 (80%:20%). The blocks were examined using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and a universal test machine. Four circular defects 8 mm in diameter were made in 12 rabbits. One defect in each animal served as a control, and the other three defects received the BCP blocks. The rabbits were sacrificed at either two weeks (n=6) or eight weeks (n=6) postoperatively. The pore size, porosity, and compressive strength of the three types of bone block were 140-170 µm, >70%, and 4-9 MPa, respectively. Histologic and histomorphometric observations revealed that the augmented space was well maintained, but limited bone formation was observed around the defect base and defect margins. No significant differences were found in the amount of new bone formation, graft material resorption, or bone infiltration among the three types of BCP block at either of the postoperative healing points. Block bone substitutes with three distinct compositions (i.e., HA:TCP ratios) processed by a modified extrusion method exhibited limited osteoconductive potency, but excellent space-maintaining capability. Further investigations are required to improve the processing method.

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